PTG 105 - Exam 3 -Lecture 15-2

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PTG 105 - Exam 3 -Lecture 15-2
2013-04-06 00:17:12
PTG 105 Exam Lecture 15

PTG 105 - Exam 3 -Lecture 15-2
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  1. Describe Achalasia:
    • Failure of LES (lower esophogeal sphincter) to open and allow the passage of food into the stomach.
    • Due to a neural input defect.
  2. What are the symptoms of Achalasia?
    • Dysphagia
    • Vomiting
    • Chest pain
  3. Complication of Achalasia are:
    • Aspiration of food into the lungs
    • increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophogous
  4. Which esophogeal disease is characterized by incresaed tone in the LES due to a neural defect?
  5. Dysphagia, Vomiting and Chest pain are symptomatic of what esophogeal disease?
  6. Describe Mallory Weiss syndrome:
    Tear in the esophogous at the Gastroesophogeal junction
  7. Mallory Weiss syndrome is often caused by:
    Chronic alcohol consumption and vomiting.
  8. Symptoms of Mallory Weiss syndrome are:
    Upper GI bleeding
  9. Upper GI bleeding is symptomatic of what alcohol induced esophogeal disease?
    Mallory Weiss Syndrome
  10. A dangerous disease that causes dialated blood vessels in the esophageal wall is:
    Esophogeal Varicies
  11. What is the etiology of Esophogeal Varicies?
    • portal hypertension
    • cirrhosis of the liver
  12. What percentage of people die from catastrophic hemmorhage of esophogeal varacies?
  13. portal hypertensiona nd cirrhosis of the liver cause what esophogeal disease?
    Esophageal Varacies
  14. What is the treatment for Esophageal Varacies?
    Endoscopic sclerotherapy
  15. Endoscopic sclerotherapy is the treatment for what disease?
    Esophogeal Varacies
  16. What is Refulx Esophagitis?
    incompetent LES allows gastric acid to fluctuate from the stomach to the esophagous
  17. The flow of gastric juices to the esophagous is what disease?
    Reflux esophagitis
  18. What are common causes of reflux esophagitis?
    • Obesity
    • Pregnancy
    • Hiatal Hernia
  19. Obeisity Pregnancy and Hiatal Hernia can cause what disease?
     Reflux esophagitis
  20. What are late symptoms of reflux esophagitis?
  21. What is the pathogenisis of reflux esophagitis?
    • Inflammation
    • ulceration
    • scarring
    • eventually: metaplasia or Barrett's esophagous
  22. What are long term developments of reflux esophagitis?
    • Metaplasia
    • Barrett's esophagous
  23. How does reflux esophagitis manifest itself?
    • Heartburn
    • Hemmorhage with ulcers
    • Dysphagia with stricture

  24. What characteristic cells are found in the esophogous with reflux esophagitis?
    Eosinophils (+ or - neutrophils)
  25. Where are eosinophils and (maybe) neutrophils found during reflux esophagitis?
    In the esophageal epithelium
  26. Define Cirrhosis:
    chronic liver disease marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue
  27. Epigastric pain from reflux esophagitis can mimic what other serious condition?
    Cardiac issues
  28. Erroded mucosa of the esophagus near the gastroesophageal junction is indicative of what disease?
    reflux esophagitis
  29. What are the treatment options for relux esophagitis?
    • Medications
    • Food avoidance
    • Surgery
  30. A Candida Infection can cause what disease?
  31. Esophagitis can be caused by what bacteria?
  32. How do you distinguish a Candida caused esophagitis from other esophatitis etiologies?
    Plaque seen on the esophageal tissue
  33. Multinucleated cell in the esophogous indicated what disease?
    Herpes esophagitis
  34. The nucleii of multinucleated esophogeal cells associated with Herpes esophagitis contain what?
  35. What symptoms are indicative of Herpes esophagitis?
    • Ulcer formationin the esophagitis
    • Multinucleated cells in the esopagous
  36. What type of metaplasia is indicative of Barrett's esophagus?
    Goblet cells
  37. What type of mucosa cells line a normal esophagus?
    Squamous cell muscosa
  38. Describe the basic pathogenisi of Barrett's Esophagus:
    Squamous cell mucosa of the esophagous is replaced with intestinal type mucosa containing goblet cells.
  39. When intestinal type mucosa becomes metaplastic and is converted to intestinal type mucosa containing Gobelt cells, what disesae is indicated?
    Barrett's mucosa
  40. BE stands for what?
    Barrett's Esophagous
  41. Barrett's esophagous is a complication of what disease?
    GERD = gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  42. What condition is premalignant and leads to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction?
    Barrett's Esophagus
  43. What is a complication of Barrett's Esophagus?
    premalignancy that can lead to adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus and Gastroesophageal Junction.
  44. Describe how Barrett's Esophagus develops?
    Gastric acid in the esophagus causes mucosal inflammation and prolonged injury results in Barrett's esophagus
  45. What is a formal description of what changes occurs in Barrett's Esophagus?
    Epithelial Metaplasia