Neuro Exam 3.7

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Neuro Exam 3.7
2013-04-05 20:41:58
neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy

review of neuro lecture 7 for exam 3
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  1. Autonomic nervous system:
    anatomical and functional neurological system, which normally works at an involuntary or reflexive level
  2. What type of components does the ANS have?
    motor and sensory
  3. What are the components of the ANS?
    • visceral afferent system
    • efferent output system
  4. Which component (motor or sensory) is the visceral afferent system?
  5. Which component (motor or sensory) is the efferent output system?
  6. What are the parts of the efferent output system?
    • sympathetic nervous system (motor)
    • parasympathetic nervous system (motor)
  7. ANS (Efferent portion) innervates:
    • smooth muscle (vasculature)
    • myocardium (cardiac mm) --middle layer of heart
    • glands
  8. What are the physiological results of the innervation of the ANS?
    • smooth mm are in AA = change BP (dilate or constrict vessels)
    • myocardium = change HR (ANS can override SA Node)
    • variation of peristalsis of gastrointestinal tract (can speed up or slow down) --in smooth mm of organs
    • variation in secretion of glands
    • release adrenaline from adrenal medulla
    • speeds up physiologic processes
    • dilate iris of eye --miosis (change in pupil size)
  9. ANS responds to sensory info coming from which 2 sources?
    • peripheral nervous system
    • CNS
  10. Peripheral nervous system:
    external afferent sensory input
  11. What makes up the PNS?
    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
    • nerves of ANS
  12. Are cranial nn somatic or visceral?
  13. Are spinal nn somatic or visceral?
  14. Are the nerves of the ANS somatic or visceral?
  15. What makes up the ANS?
    • sympathetic
    • parasympathetic
  16. Central nervous system:
    internal afferent sensory input
  17. What is contained in the brainstem of the CNS?
    • respiratory center
    • cardiovascular center
  18. What makes up the respiratory center of the brainstem?
    pons and medulla
  19. What makes up the cardiovascular center of the brainstem?
  20. Where are the cerebral cortex and limbic system of the CNS?
    frontal lobe
  21. What is the frontal lobe (with the cerebral cortex and limbic system) responsible for?
    responsible for though processes and integration; feeds into emotions and how they are expressed
  22. How does the ANS respond to internal and external afferent input?
    • ANS reflexes at the spinal cord and brainstem level
    • info doesn't have to go to cortex to be perceived
  23. Where is output of internal and external afferent input of the ANS from?
  24. What does the hypothalamus control?
  25. What activates a response from the hypothalamus?
  26. What does the sympathetic system do?
    speeds up physiological processes so that person can meet either psychological or physiological demands (fight or flight)
  27. How many neurons are involved in the sympathetic system?
    2 neuron pathway (preganglionic, postganglionic)
  28. Where are preganglionic cell bodies of 1st order neurons of the sympathetic system located?
    lateral gray horn of spinal cord b/w T1 and L3
  29. Where do axons of the sympathetic system leave the spinal cord?
    via ventral horns
  30. What do sympathetic system axons leaving the spinal cord via ventral horns enter?
    ventral root through ventral rootlets
  31. After sympathetic system axons enter the ventral root what do they enter?
    sympathetic chain through white ramus
  32. Sympathetic trunk:
    made up of symapthetic ganglia and collections of axons, which are found on each side of the veretebral column in the pelvis, abdomen, thorax, and neck
  33. What are other names for the sympathetic trunk?
    • sympathetic chain
    • paravertebral chain ganglia
  34. Perganglionic neuron:
    first in 2 neuron system, myelinated
  35. White ramus:
    area in which preganglionic neurons leave spinal nerve to join sympathetic chain
  36. postganglionic neuron:
    2nd in 2 neuron system, unmyelinated
  37. Postganglionic neurons that originate in sympathetic chain rejoin spinal nerves via:
    gray ramus
  38. How do postganglionic neurons reach target structure?
    by leaving ganglion and wrapping itself around the artery that goes there, thus, piggybacking its way
  39. Certain parts of the spinal cord contain preganglionic neurons that go to what specific places?
    • T1: to the head
    • T1-T5: visceral structures in thorax
    • T6-T12: visceral structures in the abdomen
    • L1-L3: kidneys and visceral structures of the pelvis
  40. Axons of T6-T12 preganglionic neurons exit spinal cord and don't synapse w/ postganglionic neurons.  Instead they form:
    distinct sympathetic nerves upon exiting the sympathetic chain
  41. Splanchnics terminate by synapsing with:
    postganglionic fibers in selected ganglia of the abdomen (superior and inferior mesenteric and celiac ganglia)
  42. The preganglionic fibers that do not travel to become splanchnics go to the:
    adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline
  43. Axons of L1-L3 preganglionic neurons exit the spinal cord, enter the sympathetic chain, and ext as:
    specific spinal nerves (pelvic nn)
  44. The axons of L1-3 preganglionic neurons terminate in:
    ganglia to synapse w/ postganglionic neurons; they travel to respective target organs
  45. Parasympathetic system:
    opposite function from sympathetic system; physiologic processes decrease w/ exception of digestion (rest and digest)
  46. What is 90% of the parasympathetic system's function due to?
    vagus nerve
  47. How many neurons are involved in the parasympathetic system pathway?
    2 (preganglionic and postganglionic)
  48. Which cranial nn are involved with the parasympathetic system?
    CN III, VII, IX, and X
  49. Which portion of the spinal cord is involved with the parasympathetic system?
    sacral portion
  50. Where are the cell bodies of parasympathetic cranial nerves?
    motor nuclei assoicated w/ CN III, VII, IV, and X)
  51. The cranial nerves exit the brainstem and pass to:
    specific parasympathetic ganglia where they synapse w/ postganglionic neurons to innervate target structure
  52. Which sacral nn are involved with the parasympathetic system?
  53. The sacral nn leave the spinal nerves collectively as parasympathetic nerves (pelvic nn) to synpase w/ postganglionic neurons in:
    parasympathetic ganglia of the pelvis which then innervate target structures
  54. What are the parasympathetic cranial nn?
    • oculomotor
    • facial
    • glossopharyngeal
    • vagus
  55. Which CN is the oculomotor nerve?
    CN III
  56. What are the functions of the oculomotor nerve?
    • causes ciliary body to constrict, causing accommodation (lens changes shape)
    • causes sphincter papillae muscle to constrict on iris of eye (pupil smaller), miosis
  57. Where do the preganglionic neurons of the oculomotor nerve originate?
    Edinger Westphal nucleus in midbrain and leave w/ cranial nerve
  58. Where do the preganglionic neurons of the oculomotor nerve synapse with postganglionic?
    ciliary ganglion located posterior to eyeball
  59. Which CN is the facial nerve?
    CN VII
  60. What does the facial nerve innervate?
    • two of three sets of sublingual and submandibular salivary glands
    • lacrimal glands
    • numerous mucous glands associated w/ mucosal tissue of the mouth, nose, and paranasal sinuses
  61. Where do the preganglionic neurons of the facial nerve originate?
    superior and inferior salivatory nuclei in medulla
  62. Where do the preganglionic neurons of the facial nerve synapse with postganglionic?
    • submandibular ganglion
    • pterygopalatine ganglion
  63. What does the submandibular ganglion innervate?
    submandibular, lingual, and mucous glands
  64. What does the pterygopalatine ganglion innervate?
    lacrimal glands and various mucous glands
  65. Which CN is the glossopharyngeal nerve?
    CN IX
  66. What does the glossopharyngeal nerve innervate?
    third set of salivary glands (parotid)
  67. Where do the preganglionic neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve originate?
    inferior salivatory nuclei located in the medulla
  68. Axons of the preganglionic neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve leave with cranial nerve and synapse w/ postanglionic neuron in:
    otic ganglia located just inferior to foramen ovale
  69. Where do the postganglionic neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve terminate?
    parotid glands
  70. Which cranial nerve is the vagus nerve?
    CN X
  71. What does the vagus nerve innervate?
    all visceral structures of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
  72. Where do the preganglionic neurons of the vagus nerve originate?
    dorsal motor nucleus of medulla
  73. The preganglionic neurons of the vagus nerve exit with the cranial nerve and synapse with postganglionic neurons in:
    ganglia close to the structures being innervated
  74. Are the postganglionic neurons of the vagus nerve long or short?
  75. There is no parasympathetic innervation of the blood vessels and skin of:
    the lower and upper extremities and trunk (no parasympathetic anatomy to make it happen)
  76. In order to counter the sympathetic tone (in terms of vasoconstriction and glandular secretion), what instructs that the sympathetic tone decreases?
  77. Theory: there may be some parasympathetic pathways to the blood vessels of the head, neck and face using:
    facial and vagus nn
  78. What are two systems of ANS neurotransmitters?
    • sympathetic
    • parasympathetic
  79. Which NT does the sympathetic preganglionic neuron use?
  80. Which NT does the sympathetic postganglionic neuron use?
  81. Which NT does the sympathetic adrenergic system utilize?
  82. Which NT do the parasympathetic pre and post ganglionic neurons use?
  83. Which NT does the parasympathetic cholinergic system utilize?
  84. Most complications from drugs is due to monkeying around with what?
    sympathetic and parasympathetic NT receptors