Neuro Exam 3.7
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Neuro Exam 3.7
neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
review of neuro lecture 7 for exam 3
Autonomic nervous system:
anatomical and functional neurological system, which normally works at an involuntary or reflexive level
What type of components does the ANS have?
motor and sensory
What are the components of the ANS?
visceral afferent system
efferent output system
Which component (motor or sensory) is the visceral afferent system?
Which component (motor or sensory) is the efferent output system?
What are the parts of the efferent output system?
sympathetic nervous system (motor)
parasympathetic nervous system (motor)
ANS (Efferent portion) innervates:
smooth muscle (vasculature)
myocardium (cardiac mm) --middle layer of heart
What are the physiological results of the innervation of the ANS?
smooth mm are in AA = change BP (dilate or constrict vessels)
myocardium = change HR (ANS can override SA Node)
variation of peristalsis of gastrointestinal tract (can speed up or slow down) --in smooth mm of organs
variation in secretion of glands
release adrenaline from adrenal medulla
speeds up physiologic processes
dilate iris of eye --miosis (change in pupil size)
ANS responds to sensory info coming from which 2 sources?
peripheral nervous system
Peripheral nervous system:
external afferent sensory input
What makes up the PNS?
nerves of ANS
Are cranial nn somatic or visceral?
Are spinal nn somatic or visceral?
Are the nerves of the ANS somatic or visceral?
What makes up the ANS?
Central nervous system:
internal afferent sensory input
What is contained in the brainstem of the CNS?
What makes up the respiratory center of the brainstem?
pons and medulla
What makes up the cardiovascular center of the brainstem?
Where are the cerebral cortex and limbic system of the CNS?
What is the frontal lobe (with the cerebral cortex and limbic system) responsible for?
responsible for though processes and integration; feeds into emotions and how they are expressed
How does the ANS respond to internal and external afferent input?
ANS reflexes at the spinal cord and brainstem level
info doesn't have to go to cortex to be perceived
Where is output of internal and external afferent input of the ANS from?
What does the hypothalamus control?
What activates a response from the hypothalamus?
What does the sympathetic system do?
speeds up physiological processes so that person can meet either psychological or physiological demands (fight or flight)
How many neurons are involved in the sympathetic system?
2 neuron pathway (preganglionic, postganglionic)
Where are preganglionic cell bodies of 1st order neurons of the sympathetic system located?
lateral gray horn of spinal cord b/w T1 and L3
Where do axons of the sympathetic system leave the spinal cord?
via ventral horns
What do sympathetic system axons leaving the spinal cord via ventral horns enter?
ventral root through ventral rootlets
After sympathetic system axons enter the ventral root what do they enter?
sympathetic chain through white ramus
made up of symapthetic ganglia and collections of axons, which are found on each side of the veretebral column in the pelvis, abdomen, thorax, and neck
What are other names for the sympathetic trunk?
paravertebral chain ganglia
first in 2 neuron system, myelinated
area in which preganglionic neurons leave spinal nerve to join sympathetic chain
2nd in 2 neuron system, unmyelinated
Postganglionic neurons that originate in sympathetic chain rejoin spinal nerves via:
How do postganglionic neurons reach target structure?
by leaving ganglion and wrapping itself around the artery that goes there, thus, piggybacking its way
Certain parts of the spinal cord contain preganglionic neurons that go to what specific places?
: to the head
: visceral structures in thorax
: visceral structures in the abdomen
: kidneys and visceral structures of the pelvis
Axons of T6-T12 preganglionic neurons exit spinal cord and don't synapse w/ postganglionic neurons. Instead they form:
distinct sympathetic nerves upon exiting the sympathetic chain
Splanchnics terminate by synapsing with:
postganglionic fibers in selected ganglia of the abdomen (superior and inferior mesenteric and celiac ganglia)
The preganglionic fibers that do not travel to become splanchnics go to the:
adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline
Axons of L1-L3 preganglionic neurons exit the spinal cord, enter the sympathetic chain, and ext as:
specific spinal nerves (pelvic nn)
The axons of L1-3 preganglionic neurons terminate in:
ganglia to synapse w/ postganglionic neurons; they travel to respective target organs
opposite function from sympathetic system; physiologic processes decrease w/ exception of digestion (rest and digest)
What is 90% of the parasympathetic system's function due to?
How many neurons are involved in the parasympathetic system pathway?
2 (preganglionic and postganglionic)
Which cranial nn are involved with the parasympathetic system?
CN III, VII, IX, and X
Which portion of the spinal cord is involved with the parasympathetic system?
Where are the cell bodies of parasympathetic cranial nerves?
motor nuclei assoicated w/ CN III, VII, IV, and X)
The cranial nerves exit the brainstem and pass to:
specific parasympathetic ganglia where they synapse w/ postganglionic neurons to innervate target structure
Which sacral nn are involved with the parasympathetic system?
The sacral nn leave the spinal nerves collectively as parasympathetic nerves (pelvic nn) to synpase w/ postganglionic neurons in:
parasympathetic ganglia of the pelvis which then innervate target structures
What are the parasympathetic cranial nn?
Which CN is the oculomotor nerve?
What are the functions of the oculomotor nerve?
causes ciliary body to constrict, causing accommodation (lens changes shape)
causes sphincter papillae muscle to constrict on iris of eye (pupil smaller), miosis
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the oculomotor nerve originate?
Edinger Westphal nucleus in midbrain and leave w/ cranial nerve
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the oculomotor nerve synapse with postganglionic?
ciliary ganglion located posterior to eyeball
Which CN is the facial nerve?
What does the facial nerve innervate?
two of three sets of sublingual and submandibular salivary glands
numerous mucous glands associated w/ mucosal tissue of the mouth, nose, and paranasal sinuses
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the facial nerve originate?
superior and inferior salivatory nuclei in medulla
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the facial nerve synapse with postganglionic?
What does the submandibular ganglion innervate?
submandibular, lingual, and mucous glands
What does the pterygopalatine ganglion innervate?
lacrimal glands and various mucous glands
Which CN is the glossopharyngeal nerve?
What does the glossopharyngeal nerve innervate?
third set of salivary glands (parotid)
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve originate?
inferior salivatory nuclei located in the medulla
Axons of the preganglionic neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve leave with cranial nerve and synapse w/ postanglionic neuron in:
otic ganglia located just inferior to foramen ovale
Where do the postganglionic neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve terminate?
Which cranial nerve is the vagus nerve?
What does the vagus nerve innervate?
all visceral structures of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the vagus nerve originate?
dorsal motor nucleus of medulla
The preganglionic neurons of the vagus nerve exit with the cranial nerve and synapse with postganglionic neurons in:
ganglia close to the structures being innervated
Are the postganglionic neurons of the vagus nerve long or short?
There is no parasympathetic innervation of the blood vessels and skin of:
the lower and upper extremities and trunk (no parasympathetic anatomy to make it happen)
In order to counter the sympathetic tone (in terms of vasoconstriction and glandular secretion), what instructs that the sympathetic tone decreases?
Theory: there may be some parasympathetic pathways to the blood vessels of the head, neck and face using:
facial and vagus nn
What are two systems of ANS neurotransmitters?
Which NT does the sympathetic preganglionic neuron use?
Which NT does the sympathetic postganglionic neuron use?
Which NT does the sympathetic adrenergic system utilize?
Which NT do the parasympathetic pre and post ganglionic neurons use?
Which NT does the parasympathetic cholinergic system utilize?
Most complications from drugs is due to monkeying around with what?
sympathetic and parasympathetic NT receptors