US Foreign Affairs and WWII
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What were the causes of isolationism?
- failure to join league
- red scare/xenophobia
- immigration laws
- tariff policy
- interest in domestic affairs:20's prosperity/30's depression
What two treaties were signed at the Washington conference?
- five power treaty
- nine power treaty
What did the five power treaty do?
- ten year naval holiday- no building war ships for 10 years
- naval parity:5-5-3 provision-tried to make navies equal
- There could be no new or improved naval bases in pacific
What did the nine power treaty do?
maintained Open Door Policy in China
What was the Dawes Plan?
new plan for Germany to pay its reparations
What was the Kellog-Briand Pact?
66 countries agree to outlaw war
What happened with Japan in 1931?
Japan invades Manchuria(china)
What does Hoover do about Japan's invading?
- He refuses to use economic sanctions
- "boycotts lead to bullets"
What was the Stimson Doctrine?
US said they would not recognize Japan's right in Manchuria
Who officially recognized the USSR?
What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
improve relations with latin america
What was the Reciprocal Trade Agreement?
you lower your tariff we lower ours
What were Axis Aggressions?
Hitler and Mussolini take territory
What was the Allied response to Axis Agressions?
appeasement-giving in to avoid war
What was the US response to Axis Agressions?
- Neutrality acts
- Cash and Carry policy
What were the neutrality acts?
limited buisness and individual involvement with nations at war
What was the cash and carry policy?
certain items could be bought for cash if it was transported on the country's own ships
What happened in 1939 with Poland? What was the american response?
- invasion of poland and start of WWII
- majority of americans support allies, but want to stay out of the war
What happened in 1940 with France?
Fall of France-changed Americans attidude
What was the US Reaction to the fall of France?
- Havana Conference
- Destroyer Deal
- Re-elects FDR
- Lend-Lease Act
- Atlantic Charter
- By fall of 1941 we are giving Britain all aid except men
What was the Havana Conference?
tells Hitler to stay out of Latin America
What was the destroyer deal?
US gave Britain 50 destroyers in return for Naval bases in the Western Heimisphere
What was the Lend-Lease Act?
gave the allies war materials on credit
What the Atlantic Charter?
FDR and Churchill announce the allied war aims
What was the US reaction when Japan expanded in Asia?
placed an embargo on gas and scrap metal to Japan
What was Japan's Reaction to the US embargo?
- attacked pearl harbor
- US declares war on Japan;Hitler declares war on US
How much did US increase production in agriculture and manufacturing?
up to 75%
What was the cost of war? how did we pay for it?
- 400 billion
- most from taxes and bonds
- debt increased to 265 billion
How many men were drafted?
over 10 million
What were social changes during WWII?
- pop. shift to states with miltary bases and industry
- Blacks continue to move out of south
- Japanese-Americans put in internment camps
- Woman serve in military
How did war end?
- Allies defeat Germany in Europe
- D-Day-allied invasion of Normandy France
- Eisenhower the hero
What was the Yalta conference?
set up post war plans with Europe
What happened in April, 1945?
FDR became died and Truman became president
What was the battle of Midway?
- turning point
- US sinks 4 Japanesse carriers
What was the Potsdam conference?
it was agreed to use the atomic bomb
Did the US have to drop the bomb?
- yes-Japan would not surrender and it saved live
- no- Japan would have surrendered anyway
What were the results of WWII?
- Europe is devastated
- over 50 mill. people killed
- communism became the major threat
- The US and USSR are the new world powers
- resulted in cold war
What is the GI Bill of Rights?
paid for veterans education
What was the purpose of the Taft Hartley Act(Slave Labor Law)? What did it allow for?
- aimed at reducing the power of organized labor
- allowed for Right to Work laws and provided for a cooling off period before strikes
What is affluency?
abundance of resourses
What did John Kenneth Galbraith's The Affluent Society say? What was the problem?
- affluency was never-ending and is avialiable for all
- problem he saw was that affluency had not ended poverty
What was the Baby Boom?
tremendous increase in birthrate following WWII
What was the 1956 Highway Act?
federal funding of intersate highways
What was "White-Flight"?
White middle class moving to suburbs
What was conformity?
everybody lived the same lifestyle
What was there the break up of?
families and communites
Where is the sunbelt?
from Fl. to Cal.
Where were people moving?
Sunbelt and Suburbs
What was the conflict between with women? What did this lay the foudation for?
- The cult of domesticity and women in the work place
- layed the foundation for the women's rights movement
What was conservationism?
after WWII the country became more conservative
What was the 22nd amendment?
2 term presidential limit
What was the Situation with civil rights under Truman? What was his attitude What did he integrate?
- blacks still had no rights
- wants to promote civil rights
- armed forces
What were the democratic parties of 1948?
- progressives- opposed truman because of his stand against communism
- Dixiecrats-opposed to Truman's civil rights policy
What was the spread of communism?
by 1949 the communist controlled controlled eastern europe, china, and the soviet had devolped the atomic bomb
What was the US Reaction the spread of communism?
- truman doctrine
- marshall plan
What was cointainment?
policy of keeping communism from spreading
What was the Truman Doctrine?
gave money to greece anf turkey to fight communism
What was the Marshall Plan?
provided money for the rebuilding of Europe
What was the Berlin Airlift?
Britain flew supplies into west Berlin to defeat soviet blockade
What was NATO?
military org. to protect europe against communism
What was the cause of the Korean War?
communist north korea invaded democratic south korea
What was the US Reaction to north korea's invasion of South korea?
Truman got the UN to send troops to help S. Korea
What did China do in the Korean War?
came in on the side of north korea
What did MacArthur want to do? What happened to him?
- attack China and publicly criticised Truman for refusing
- truman fired him
What were the results of the Korean War?
- korea still divided
- communism kept from spreading
What does HUAC stand for? What did they hold hearings for?
- House Committee on UN-American activities
- communist influences in america
Who was Alger Hiss?
- worked for the state department and was accused of being a communist spy
- his case divided the nation
Who were Julius and Ethel Rosenburg?
executed for giving atomic secrets to Russia
What is MaCarthyism?
claimed to have a list of communist working in the government
What was the downfall of McCarthy?
Army McCarthy Hearings
What was Eisenhower's character?
What was the AFL-CIO Merger?
creates large and powerful labor union
What was the Landrum-Griffin Act?
regulated union finances and elections
What case was under warren court?
brown v board
What was Brown v Board?
- overturned plessy v fergeson
- led to integration of schools
What happened at Central High, Little Rock?
- 9 blacks enroll at Central High
- Gov. of Arkansas called in national guard to keep them out
- Eisenhower sends in federal troops to let them in the school
What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
- Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man
- MLK stared bus boycott
What were the results of Montgomery Bus Boycott?
- supreme court overturn alabama bus law
- beginning of civil rights movement
What was the SCLC?
- southern christain leadership conference
- MLK's organization to use non-violent means to gain black rights
What was the Civil Rights Bill of 1957? What was its signifigance?
- aimed at helping blacks vote
- first civil rights legislation in over 80 years
What was the Youth Movement?
- Impact of Affluecny- more young people staying in school
- imapct of mass media
- activities- delinquency, rock and roll, tv became big
Who were the beats?
Who were two beat writers?
- Alan Ginsberg-Howl
- Jack Kerouac-On the road
What was the Suez Crisis?
- Eqypt took over suez canal
- Eisenhower refused to help Britain take canal back
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
Truman Doctrine for the middle east
Who was John Foster Dulles? What was Massive Retaliation?
- sec. of state
- using the threat of nuclear weapons
What is Brinkmanship?
push the other side to the brink of war
What happened with the French in Vietnam?
- After WWII the communist in vietnam started a war with the french
- truman sent money to help french
What was the division of Vietnam?
in 1954 french defeated and Vietnam divided into communist north and non communist south
Who were the Viet Cong and what did they do?
- communist in SV
- stared a civil war agaisnt SV government
What was Eisenhower's reation to vietnam?
- does not want to send troops
- sent military advisors
What is domino theory?
if one country fell to communism others would to
What was Sputnik?
first satellite in space sent by USSR
What was the National Defense Education Act?
provided money to schools to promote math and science
What happened with Khrushchev's visit?
came to US and it brought better relations between US and Soivet Union untill an american spy plane was shot down over Russia
Who is Fidel Castro?
led communist take over of cuba
What was US reaction to Cuba?
threatened to use Monroe doctrine on Russia
What was Soviet Reaction to Russia?
bother cuba and we will rain missles on the US
What did we do in the end to cuba?
put a trade embargo on them
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