PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15- 3
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What type of carcinoma is most common for Esophageal carcinoma in the world?
Squamous cell (90%)
What percentage of Esophageal carcinoma is Squamous cell?
What are risk factors for Esophageal carcinoma?
- Nitrates and nitrosamines in food
Alcohol, Tobacco, Nitrates and Nitrosamines in food and Achalasia are all risk factors for what disease?
What is the most common form of Esophageal carcinoma in the US?
Adenocarcinoma developing from BE
What are the risk factors for adenocarcinoma?
What are the symptoms of Esophageal Carcinoma?
Weight loss and Dysphagia
What are the symptoms of Squamous cell carcinoma?
- Narrowing of esophagous
- Dysphagia (due to narrowed esophagus)
- Keratin Pearl formation
What are some procedures for correcting problems associated with Squamous cell carcinoma?
- Placing a stent in advanced SCC
- Placing a mesh tube in the esophagus to improve dysphagia
Inflammation of the stomach
What are the three main etiologies of chronic gastritis?
- Autoimmune gastritis
- Long term abuse of alcohol or NSAIDs
- Helicobacter Pylori
Helicobacter pylori creates an increased risk of what disease?
How does Helicobacter pylori cause disease?
- Residing in the lower part of the stomach (antrum)
- Releasing enzymes and toxins that cause inflammation
How is a Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosed?
- Visualizing organisms
How does Autoimmune gastritis develop?
Antibodies are produced against acid producing parietal cells of the stomach (atrophic gastritis)
What is the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in American Adults?
What is the shape of Helicobacter pylori?
What is the antrum?
Lower part of the stomach
The lower part of the stomach is termed what?
What bacteria commonly causes gastric and duodenal ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori, long term use of alcohol and NSAIDs, Autoimmune diseases can all cause what disease?
What do gastric parietal cells produce?
HCL and intrinsic factor
What type of cells and in what organ produce HCL and intrinsic factor?
Gastric parietal cells
Intrinsic factor is produced in what area of the body and what type of cells?
Gastric parietal cells
The injury of Autoimmune gastritis causes what specific type of gastritis?
What is another word for Atrophic gastritis?
What is another term for mucosal atrophy?
Atrophic gastritis is part of what disease?
Atrophic gastritis or Mucosal atrophy can increase the risk of what serious disease?
What is the purpose of IF (intrinsic factor)?
Absorption of Vit. B12
What product of the stomach is responsible for the absorption of Vit. B12?
What is a Vit. B12 deficiency termed?
What is Pernicious anemia?
Vit. B12 deficiency
What are common ingestible causes of acute gastritis?
- Acid or alkali consumption
What are common non-ingestible causes of Acute gastritis?
What are symptoms of Acute gastritis?
- Epigastric pain
- Angry mucosa (determined by endoscopy)
Epigastric pain and Angry mucosa upon endoscopy are symptomatic of what disease?
Describe the three steps leading to peptic ulcer formation by Helicobacter pylori:
- Damage by Helicobacter, drugs, enzymes, etc.
- Atrophy, Lympoid and Neutrophil aggregation, Metaplasia
- Ulcer formation
What are the four layer of an ulcer (in order from stomach interior to exterior)?
- Granulation tissue
How many layers does an ulcer have?
What types of inflammatory cells are seen in acute inflammation?
Need to determine
What types of inflammatory cells are seen in chronic inflammation?
Helicobacter Pylori predisposes patients to what disease?
- Gastric lymphoma
- Intestinal Metaplasia
Intestinal Metaplasia is caused by what?
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