PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15- 3

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PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15- 3
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2013-04-06 13:36:23
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PTG 105 Exam Lecture 15
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PTG 105 - Exam- Lecture 15- 3
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  1. What type of carcinoma is most common for Esophageal carcinoma in the world?
    Squamous cell (90%)
  2. What percentage of Esophageal carcinoma is Squamous cell?
    90%
  3. What are risk factors for Esophageal carcinoma?
    • Alcohol
    • Tobacco
    • Nitrates and nitrosamines in food
    • Achalasia
  4. Alcohol, Tobacco, Nitrates and Nitrosamines in food and Achalasia are all risk factors for what disease?
    Esophageal carcinoma
  5. What is the most common form of Esophageal carcinoma in the US?
    Adenocarcinoma developing from BE
  6. What are the risk factors for adenocarcinoma?
    Barrett’s Esophagus
  7. What are the symptoms of Esophageal Carcinoma?
    Weight loss and Dysphagia
  8. What are the symptoms of Squamous cell carcinoma?
    • Narrowing of esophagous
    • Dysphagia (due to narrowed esophagus)
    • Keratin Pearl formation
  9. What are some procedures for correcting problems associated with Squamous cell carcinoma?
    • Placing a stent in advanced SCC
    • Placing a mesh tube in the esophagus to improve dysphagia
  10. Describe Gastritis:
    Inflammation of the stomach
  11. What are the three main etiologies of chronic gastritis?
    • Autoimmune gastritis
    • Long term abuse of alcohol or NSAIDs
    • Helicobacter Pylori
  12. Helicobacter pylori creates an increased risk of what disease?
    Gastric Cancer
  13. How does Helicobacter pylori cause disease?
    • Residing in the lower part of the stomach (antrum)
    • Releasing enzymes and toxins that cause inflammation
  14. How is a Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosed?
    • Biopsy
    • Visualizing organisms
  15. How does Autoimmune gastritis develop?
    Antibodies are produced against acid producing parietal cells of the stomach (atrophic gastritis)
  16. What is the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in American Adults?
    50%
  17. What is the shape of Helicobacter pylori?
    Curved
  18. What is the antrum?
    Lower part of the stomach
  19. The lower part of the stomach is termed what?
    The antrum
  20. What bacteria commonly causes gastric and duodenal ulcers?
    Helicobacter pylori
  21. Helicobacter pylori, long term use of alcohol and NSAIDs, Autoimmune diseases can all cause what disease?
    Gastritis
  22. What do gastric parietal cells produce?
    HCL and intrinsic factor
  23. What type of cells and in what organ produce HCL and intrinsic factor?
    Gastric parietal cells
  24. Intrinsic factor is produced in what area of the body and what type of cells?
    Gastric parietal cells
  25. The injury of Autoimmune gastritis causes what specific type of gastritis?
    Atrophic gastritis
  26. What is another word for Atrophic gastritis?
    Mucosal atrophy
  27. What is another term for mucosal atrophy?
    Atrophic gastritis
  28. Atrophic gastritis is part of what disease?
    Autoimmune gastritis
  29. Atrophic gastritis or Mucosal atrophy can increase the risk of what serious disease?
    Gastric cancer
  30. What is the purpose of IF (intrinsic factor)?
    Absorption of Vit. B12
  31. What product of the stomach is responsible for the absorption of Vit. B12?
    Intrinsic Factor
  32. What is a Vit. B12 deficiency termed?
    Pernicious Anemia
  33. What is Pernicious anemia?
    Vit. B12 deficiency
  34. What are common ingestible causes of acute gastritis?
    • Alcohol
    • Smoking
    • Aspirin
    • NSAIDs
    • Acid or alkali consumption
  35. What are common non-ingestible causes of Acute gastritis?
    • Stress
    • Burns
    • Trauma
    • Shock
    • Surgery
  36. What are symptoms of Acute gastritis?
    • Epigastric pain
    • Angry mucosa (determined by endoscopy)
  37. Epigastric pain and Angry mucosa upon endoscopy are symptomatic of what disease?
    Acute gastritis
  38. Describe the three steps leading to peptic ulcer formation by Helicobacter pylori:
    • Damage by Helicobacter, drugs, enzymes, etc.
    • Atrophy, Lympoid and Neutrophil aggregation, Metaplasia
    • Ulcer formation
  39. What are the four layer of an ulcer (in order from stomach interior to exterior)?
    • Necrotic
    • Inflammatory
    • Granulation tissue
    • Fibrous
  40. How many layers does an ulcer have?
    4
  41. What types of inflammatory cells are seen in acute inflammation?
    Need to determine
  42. What types of inflammatory cells are seen in chronic inflammation?
    • Plasma cells
    • Lymphocytes
  43. Helicobacter Pylori predisposes patients to what disease?
    • Gastric lymphoma
    • Intestinal Metaplasia
    • Dysplasia
    • Carcinoma
  44. Intestinal Metaplasia is caused by what?
    Helicobacter pylori

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