Understand compounds (how many elements? Atoms? are in a chemical formula)
Elements ex : H2O = H & O
Atoms ex : H2O = H-2 atoms
= O-1 atom
1 + 2 = 3 Atoms total
What elements make up the common substances like table salt, aspirin, and sugar?
Ts - NaCl
Aspirin - CHO
Sugar - C6H12O6
What name is given to the numbers 2 and 3 in H2O3 ?
Coefficients; H2 - Subscript
H3 - Superscript
Difference between chemical names, chemical equations, chemical formulas and chemical symbols?
Chemical name : Hydrogen
Chemical equation : O + 2H2 --> 2H2O
Chemical formulas : H2O
Chemical symbols : H
Word equation : Oxygen + Hydrogen --> Water
How to write common chemical formulas for water, carbon dioxide, table salt, carbon monoxide, glucose, and ammonia?
Water : H2O
Carbon dioxide : CO2
Table salt : NaCl
Carbon monoxide : CO
Glucose : C6H12O6
Ammonia : NH3
Understand that 2H2O means 2 molecules of water. How do you write 6 molecules of glucose?
When naming Ionic compounds, does the metal or non-metal get written first or last? What does the ending change to?
Metal goes first.
The ending changes to Ide.
Who came up with the method of naming Ionic compounds and where was he from?
Morveau of france
What does aqueous mean?
Something that's' solvent is water.
Be able to draw models of compounds.
What is an ion? In order for an atom to be charged positively. will it have to lose or gain electrons? Does +1 or -1 have a larger charge?
Its what results when a neutral atom has gained or lost one or more electrons.
Perfect salt crystals are what shape?
For ionic compounds, be able to pick out polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42-), phosphate (PO43-), and carbonate (CO32-) and understand their structural make-up.
Be able to name a ionic compound if given the formula, or write the formula if given the elements or name.
When you see a metal with 2 non metals the end is ate instead of ide
Be able to name a molecular compound if given the formula, or write the formula if given the elements or the name.
What is the main difference between copper and copper 2
Copper 2 lost 2 electrons and copper 1 lost 1
What is the difference between subscript and superscript?
Subscript : H2
Superscript : H2
How to read information off the periodic table?
Like a book; Left to right.
Be able to predict what the ion charge of an atom will be. HINT: draw out a bohr model of the atom, then decide if it would be better to lose or gain electrons if its going to lose them it'll be a +1 ion, if its going to gain it'll be a -1 ion
The shells are 2)8)8).
If the shells have 2)7) then the ion charge will be -1.
If the shells have 2)8)2) then the ion charge will be +2.
What is the most common element found in molecular compounds?
The most common are Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Sulfur, Phosphorus.
Properties of ionic and molecular compounds. Be able to identify which of them based on information given.
state @ room temp?
Boiling point : Higher Lower
Room temp. : Solid Liquid/gas
Conductivity : Good bad
Crystal shape : Cubic many shapes
Be familiar with the the chemical reactions that were demonstrated in class. What happens when magnesium ribbon is combined with sulfuric acid, potassium iodide is combined with lead nitrate, baking soda is added to vinegar etc.
What three processes is oxygen required for?
Endothermic vs. Exothermic reactions
Endo - Absorbs energy. Ex. When a liquid turns into a gas, it must absorb sufficient energy to overcome the intermolecular forces in order for the particles to escape into the gas phase.
Exo. Gives off energy Ex. When a liquid turns into a solid, such as water turning into ice, it must release energy in order for the water to solidify. That is why ice is colder than regular water; it has less energy
Photosynthesis vs. Cellular respiration. (Exo or Endo)
Photo. - Endothermic
Cell. - Exothermic
What is another name for chalk?
Open systems vs. Closed systems
Open: Things can go in or out - mass can change
Closed: Nothing can go in or out - mass stays the same
What is the law of conservation of mass?
Mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical and physical changes.
The three factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions.
Concentration, surface area and temperature.
What is a catalyst? What are four types of catalysts?