matter and chemical change- exam #2

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matter and chemical change- exam #2
2013-04-10 01:47:06

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  1. Understand compounds. (how many elements and atoms are in a chemical formula)
    • Compounds are made up of elements
    • Ex. Li3N.: elements- lithium, nitrogen. atom- 3 lithium,1 nitrogen
  2. What elements make up common substances like table salt, aspirin, and sugar?
    • Table salt: NaCl
    • Aspirin: CHO
    • Sugar: C6H12O6
  3. What name is given to the #'s 2 and 3 in H2O3?
    co-efficients, written as subscripts
  4. Difference between chemical names, chemical equations, chemical formulas and chemical symbols. examples?
    • chemical name: hydrogen
    • chemical equation: 2H2O -> O2 + 2H2
    • chemical formula: H2O, H2
    • chemical symbol: H
  5. How to write common chemical formula's
    • water: H2O
    • carbon dioxide: Co2
    • table salt: NaCl
    • carbon monoxide: CO
    • glucose: C6H12O6
    • ammonia: NH3
  6. Understand that 2H2O means 2 molecules of water. How would you write 6 molecules of glucose?
  7. When naming Ionic Compounds, does the metal or non-metal get written last? What does the ending change to?
    • metal: first
    • non-metal: last
    • the ending changes to ide
    • Morveau of France created this method*
  8. What does aqueous mean?
    dissolves in water
  9. Be able to draw models of a compound
  10. What is an ion? In order for an atom to become charged positively, will it have to lose or gain electrons? Does "+1" or "-1" have a larger charge?
    • an ion has either lost or gained electrons
    • lose (+1): more positive
    • gain (-1): more negative
  11. Perfect salt crystals have which type of shape?
  12. For Ionic compounds, be able to pick out polyatomic ions such as...
    • sulfate: SO4
    • phosphate: PO4
    • carbonate: CO3
  13. Be able to name an ionic compound if given the formula, or write the formula if given the elements or the name.
    metal, non-metal, ide
  14. Be able to name a molecular compound if given the formula, or write the formula if given the elements or name.
    • non-metal, non-metal.
    • mono
    • di
    • tri
    • tetra
    • penta
  15. What is the main difference between copper and copper (II)?
    • copper: it either has a charge of 1 or only 1 charge
    • copper (II): it has a charge of 2 and there's 2 or more charges available
  16. What is the difference between subscript and superscrip?
    • superscript- above
    • subscript- below
  17. Know how to read information off of the periodic table
  18. Be able to predict what the ion charge of an atom will be. HINT: draw out a Bohr model of the atom, then decide if it would be better to lose or gain electrons. If it's going to lose them it will be a "+" ion, and if it needs to gain it will be a "-" ion.
  19. What is the most common element found in a molecular compound?
  20. Properties of Ionic and Molecular compounds. Be able to identify them based on information given.
  21. Be familiar with the chemical reactions that were demonstrated in class.
    • magnesium ribbon is combined with sulphuric acid: acid eats the ribbon away
    • potassium iodide is combined with lead nitrate: bright yellow, precipitate
    • baking soda is added to vinegar: carbon dioxide bubbles
  22. What three processes is oxygen required for?
    • combustion
    • corrosion
    • cellular respiration
  23. Endothermic vs. Exothermic reactions.
    • endothermic: chemical reaction that absorbs energy. ex. cooking
    • exothermic: chemical reaction that releases energy. ex. burning
  24. Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration ( are they exo. or endo.?)
    • photosynthesis (endothermic): Light A+B -> C+D
    • cellular respiration (exothermic): C+D -> A+B+Chemical Energy
  25. What is another name for chalk?
    Calcium Carbonate: CaCO3
  26. Open systems vs. Closed systems
    • open- things are able to enter and leave
    • closed- absolutely sealed, nothing can enter or leave
  27. What is the Law of Conservation of mass? Understand it and explain it.
    • Conservation of mass- principle that matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction; the mass of the products always equals the mass of the reactants.
    • mass is the same, experiment is changed
  28. The three factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions...
    • concentration
    • temperature
    • surface area
  29. What is a catalyst? What are some types of catalysts?
    • a catalyst speeds up reactions
    • forms of catalysts are heat, electricity
  30. Physics properties
    • ductile- able to be stretched into a long wire
    • malleable- able to be pounded or rolled into a sheet
    • hardness- the ability to be scratched
  31. Chemical properties
  32. Chemical equations
    • Reactants are before the arrow
    • Products are after the arrow
  33. periodic groups (vertical)
    • Halogens: (group 17) most reactive non-metals
    • Non-metals: (solid or gas metals are dull, brittle elements that don't conduct electricity
    • Noble gases: (group 18) most stable and unreactive elements
    • Alkali metals: (group 1)most reactive of the metals
    • Alkaline- earth metals: reactivity is not as strong (group 2)
    • Metals: shiny, malleable, and conduct electricity