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Understand compounds. (how many elements and atoms are in a chemical formula)
- Compounds are made up of elements
- Ex. Li3N.: elements- lithium, nitrogen. atom- 3 lithium,1 nitrogen
What elements make up common substances like table salt, aspirin, and sugar?
- Table salt: NaCl
- Aspirin: CHO
- Sugar: C6H12O6
What name is given to the #'s 2 and 3 in H2O3?
co-efficients, written as subscripts
Difference between chemical names, chemical equations, chemical formulas and chemical symbols. examples?
- chemical name: hydrogen
- chemical equation: 2H2O -> O2 + 2H2
- chemical formula: H2O, H2
- chemical symbol: H
How to write common chemical formula's
- water: H2O
- carbon dioxide: Co2
- table salt: NaCl
- carbon monoxide: CO
- glucose: C6H12O6
- ammonia: NH3
Understand that 2H2O means 2 molecules of water. How would you write 6 molecules of glucose?
When naming Ionic Compounds, does the metal or non-metal get written last? What does the ending change to?
- metal: first
- non-metal: last
- the ending changes to ide
- Morveau of France created this method*
What does aqueous mean?
dissolves in water
Be able to draw models of a compound
What is an ion? In order for an atom to become charged positively, will it have to lose or gain electrons? Does "+1" or "-1" have a larger charge?
- an ion has either lost or gained electrons
- lose (+1): more positive
- gain (-1): more negative
Perfect salt crystals have which type of shape?
For Ionic compounds, be able to pick out polyatomic ions such as...
- sulfate: SO4
- phosphate: PO4
- carbonate: CO3
Be able to name an ionic compound if given the formula, or write the formula if given the elements or the name.
metal, non-metal, ide
Be able to name a molecular compound if given the formula, or write the formula if given the elements or name.
- non-metal, non-metal.
What is the main difference between copper and copper (II)?
- copper: it either has a charge of 1 or only 1 charge
- copper (II): it has a charge of 2 and there's 2 or more charges available
What is the difference between subscript and superscrip?
- superscript- above
- subscript- below
Know how to read information off of the periodic table
Be able to predict what the ion charge of an atom will be. HINT: draw out a Bohr model of the atom, then decide if it would be better to lose or gain electrons. If it's going to lose them it will be a "+" ion, and if it needs to gain it will be a "-" ion.
What is the most common element found in a molecular compound?
Properties of Ionic and Molecular compounds. Be able to identify them based on information given.
Be familiar with the chemical reactions that were demonstrated in class.
- magnesium ribbon is combined with sulphuric acid: acid eats the ribbon away
- potassium iodide is combined with lead nitrate: bright yellow, precipitate
- baking soda is added to vinegar: carbon dioxide bubbles
What three processes is oxygen required for?
- cellular respiration
Endothermic vs. Exothermic reactions.
- endothermic: chemical reaction that absorbs energy. ex. cooking
- exothermic: chemical reaction that releases energy. ex. burning
Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration ( are they exo. or endo.?)
- photosynthesis (endothermic): Light A+B -> C+D
- cellular respiration (exothermic): C+D -> A+B+Chemical Energy
What is another name for chalk?
Calcium Carbonate: CaCO3
Open systems vs. Closed systems
- open- things are able to enter and leave
- closed- absolutely sealed, nothing can enter or leave
What is the Law of Conservation of mass? Understand it and explain it.
- Conservation of mass- principle that matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction; the mass of the products always equals the mass of the reactants.
- mass is the same, experiment is changed
The three factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions...
- surface area
What is a catalyst? What are some types of catalysts?
- a catalyst speeds up reactions
- forms of catalysts are heat, electricity
- ductile- able to be stretched into a long wire
- malleable- able to be pounded or rolled into a sheet
- hardness- the ability to be scratched
- Reactants are before the arrow
- Products are after the arrow
periodic groups (vertical)
- Halogens: (group 17) most reactive non-metals
- Non-metals: (solid or gas metals are dull, brittle elements that don't conduct electricity
- Noble gases: (group 18) most stable and unreactive elements
- Alkali metals: (group 1)most reactive of the metals
- Alkaline- earth metals: reactivity is not as strong (group 2)
- Metals: shiny, malleable, and conduct electricity