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What are the major subdivisions of the brainstem?
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla
What are the landmarks for the major brainstem division?
Midbrain: caudal to mammillary bodies, rostral to superior pontine sulcus
Pons: between superior and inferior pontine sulcus
Medulla: caudal to inferior pontine sulcus
What are the landmarks visible from a dorsal view of the brain stem?
Midbrain: Tectum (superior and inferior colliculi)
Pons: Cerebellar penducles, 4th ventricle (if cerebellum is removed)
Medulla: 4th ventricle, F. Gracilis & Cuneatus
Cranial Nerve Nuclei, Cerebellar circuitry, Descending Pathways, Ascending Pathways, Other... give specific examples of each
- Sensory, Motor
- All three cerebellar penducles, pontine nuclei, inferior olive
- Corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, upper motor neurons (reticular formation, vestibular nuclei, superior colliculus)
- N. Gracilis & Cuneatus, Medial Lemniscus, ALS, trigeminothalamics
- Substantia nigra, MLF, reticular formation (pain modulation, sleep cycle, respiration, cardiovascular)
How can cranial nerve lesions be localized?
Symptoms specific to cranial nerve nuclei, in combination with those from ascending/descending pathway damage, will localize the lesion to a specific brainstem level
What are the points of exit/entrance of cranial nerves III-XII?
Midbrain: III, IV
Pons-Medulla Junction: VI-VIII
Location of cranial nerve nuclie: