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Where is there the highest incidence of stomach cancer?
What are common causes of stomach carcinoma (6)?
- Helicobacter pylori
- Chronic gastritis
- Pernicious anemia
- Atrophic gastritis
What dietary components can cause Stomach cancer (4)?
- Smoke meats
- Lack of vegetables
- High salt intake
Nitrites, High salt intake, Smoked meats and Lack of vegetables can cause what disease?
What are the six ways that Stomach cancer manifests itself?
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Abdominal mass
- Abdominal discomfort
A patient presenting with Bleeding, Abdominal mass, Abdominal discomfort, Anemia, Weight loss and Loss of appetite is symptomatic of what disease?
By the time of Stomach cancer diagnosis, what other organs are usually involved?
How many main types of Adenocarcinoma exist?
What are the two types of adenocarcinoma?
- Intestinal Type
- Diffuse Type
What characteristics does Intestinal type Adenocarcinoma have?
Exophystic growth (growing outward within the epithelium)
What is Exophystic?
Growing outward in the epithelial cells
What characteristics does diffuse type adenocarcinoma have?
- Signet ring cells
- Thickened mucle wall
Adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells and a thickened muscle wall is what type?
Adenocarcinoma with exophystic growth it what type?
Which type of adenocarcinoma exhibits “linnitis plastic”, no mass leasiona nd thickening of the stomach wall?
What is “linnitis plastica”?
Thickening of the stomach, often leathery
Which type of adenocarcinoma does not produce a mass?
What are the risk factors for diffuse type adenocarcinoma?
- HP infection and gastritis are often absent
- Gene mutation may be a prospect
Which type of Stomach cancer is not usually associated with Helicobater pylori or gastritis?
Diffuse type adenocarcinoma
What is Meckel’s diverticulum?
Remnant of embryonic structure remains
How does Meckel’s Diverticulum usually present?
- Symptoms similar to appendicitis
A patient with symptoms similar to appendicitis could also have what other disease?
What disease is caused by a remnant of embryonic structure?
- Meckel’s Diverticulum
- What disease can be described as the narrowing of the outlet to the stomach?
- Congenital pyloric stenosis
Describe congenital pyloric stenosis:
Narrowing of the outlet of the stomach
What disease causes projectile vomiting at 2-4 weeks of age?
Congenital pyloric stenosis
Describe the symptoms of congenital pyloric stenosis:
Projectile vomiting presenting at 2-4 weeks of age
What is the pyloric part of the stomach?
What disease can also be described as congenital megacolon?
Hirschsprungs disease is also known as:
Describe Hirschsprungs disease:
- No ganglion in rectal segment
- Narrowed rectum
- Distended colon
What is the age of onset of Hirschsprung’s disease?
1 month or less, though variable
What disease includes a distended colon, lack of ganglion in a rectal segment and a narrowed rectum?
What disease presents as abdominal pain, distended colon and vomiting?
What are the symptoms of Hirschsprung’s disease?
- Abdominal pain
- Distended colon
- Chronic constipation
Describe a megacolon:
Distension of the colon to 6-7 cm
What are causes of megacolon?
- Hirschsprung’s disease (congenital)
- Lesion of the colon (acquired)
- Trypansoma infection (acquired)
Hircshsprung’s disease, Trypansoma and Acquired lesion are all means of acquiring what pathogenic abnormality?
Are any remnants of nervous tissue present in children with Hirschsprung’s disease?
Yes, a nerve twig, just no ganglionic cells
Ischemic bowel disease can affect what part of the GI?
Small and Large bowel
Describe Ischemic bowel disease:
Loss or decreased blood supply to the bowels
What disease involves the loss or reduction in blood supply to the bowels?
Ischemic bowel disease
What four ways can Ischemic bowel disease develop?
- Vasoconstrictive drugs
- Cardiac failure