PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15 -6

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PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15 -6
2013-04-06 23:24:02
PTG 105 Exam Lecture 15

PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15 -6
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  1. Where is there the highest incidence of stomach cancer?
    • Japan
    • Chile
    • Italy
    • China
  2. What are common causes of stomach carcinoma (6)?
    • Diet
    • Helicobacter pylori
    • Chronic gastritis
    • Genetic
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Atrophic gastritis
  3. What dietary components can cause Stomach cancer (4)?
    • Nitrites
    • Smoke meats
    • Lack of vegetables
    • High salt intake
  4. Nitrites, High salt intake, Smoked meats and Lack of vegetables can cause what disease?
    Stomach Cancer
  5. What are the six ways that Stomach cancer manifests itself?
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss
    • Abdominal mass
    • Abdominal discomfort
    • Bleeding
    • Anemia
  6. A patient presenting with Bleeding, Abdominal mass, Abdominal discomfort, Anemia, Weight loss and Loss of appetite is symptomatic of what disease?
    Stomach Cancer
  7. By the time of Stomach cancer diagnosis, what other organs are usually involved?
    Lymph nodes
  8. How many main types of Adenocarcinoma exist?
    2 types
  9. What are the two types of adenocarcinoma?
    • Intestinal Type
    • Diffuse Type
  10. What characteristics does Intestinal type Adenocarcinoma have?
    Exophystic growth (growing outward within the epithelium)
  11. What is Exophystic?
    Growing outward in the epithelial cells
  12. What characteristics does diffuse type adenocarcinoma have?
    • Signet ring cells
    • Thickened mucle wall
  13. Adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells and a thickened muscle wall is what type?
    Diffuse Type
  14. Adenocarcinoma with exophystic growth it what type?
    Intestinal Type
  15. Which type of adenocarcinoma exhibits “linnitis plastic”, no mass leasiona nd thickening of the stomach wall?
    Diffuse Type
  16. What is “linnitis plastica”?
    Thickening of the stomach, often leathery
  17. Which type of adenocarcinoma does not produce a mass?
    Diffuse type
  18. What are the risk factors for diffuse type adenocarcinoma?
    • Undefined
    • HP infection and gastritis are often absent
    • Gene mutation may be a prospect
  19. Which type of Stomach cancer is not usually associated with Helicobater pylori or gastritis?
    Diffuse type adenocarcinoma
  20. What is Meckel’s diverticulum?
    Remnant of embryonic structure remains
  21. How does Meckel’s Diverticulum usually present?
    • Asymptomatic
    • Symptoms similar to appendicitis
  22. A patient with symptoms similar to appendicitis could also have what other disease?
    Meckel’s Diverticulum
  23. What disease is caused by a remnant of embryonic structure?
    • Meckel’s Diverticulum
    • What disease can be described as the narrowing of the outlet to the stomach?
    • Congenital pyloric stenosis
  24. Describe congenital pyloric stenosis:
    Narrowing of the outlet of the stomach
  25. What disease causes projectile vomiting at 2-4 weeks of age?
    Congenital pyloric stenosis
  26. Describe the symptoms of congenital pyloric stenosis:
    Projectile vomiting presenting at 2-4 weeks of age
  27. What is the pyloric part of the stomach?
    Lower curvature
  28. What disease can also be described as congenital megacolon?
    Hirschsprung’s disease
  29. Hirschsprungs disease is also known as:
    Congenical megacolon
  30. Describe Hirschsprungs disease:
    • No ganglion in rectal segment
    • Narrowed rectum
    • Distended colon
  31. What is the age of onset of Hirschsprung’s disease?
    1 month or less, though variable
  32. What disease includes a distended colon, lack of ganglion in a rectal segment and a narrowed rectum?
    Hirschsprung’s disease
  33. What disease presents as abdominal pain, distended colon and vomiting?
    Hirschsprung’s Disease
  34. What are the symptoms of Hirschsprung’s disease?
    • Abdominal pain
    • Distended colon
    • Vomiting
    • Chronic constipation
  35. Describe a megacolon:
    Distension of the colon to 6-7 cm
  36. What are causes of megacolon?
    • Hirschsprung’s disease (congenital)
    • Lesion of the colon (acquired)
    • Trypansoma infection (acquired)
  37. Hircshsprung’s disease, Trypansoma and Acquired lesion are all means of acquiring what pathogenic abnormality?
  38. Are any remnants of nervous tissue present in children with Hirschsprung’s disease?
    Yes, a nerve twig, just no ganglionic cells
  39. Ischemic bowel disease can affect what part of the GI?
    Small and Large bowel
  40. Describe Ischemic bowel disease:
    Loss or decreased blood supply to the bowels
  41. What disease involves the loss or reduction in blood supply to the bowels?
    Ischemic bowel disease
  42. What four ways can Ischemic bowel disease develop?
    • Thrombosis
    • Vasoconstrictive drugs
    • Cardiac failure
    • Shock