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Thrombosis, cardiac failure, shock and vasoconstrictive drugs can cause what disease?
Ischemic bowel disease
What ways can ischemic bowel disease develop rapidly?
What can cause a slow onset of Ischemic heart disease?
- Cardiac failure
- Vasoconstrictive drugs
Which causes of Ischemic bowel disease involve the entire wall of the bowel?
Those caused by Thrombosis
Thrombosis can affect what part of the bowel wall in Ischemic bowel disease?
The entire wall
Cardiac failure, shock and vasoconstricitve drugs can affect what part of the bowel wall in Ischemic heart disease?
- The mucosa and submucosa only
- An ischemic bowel that had a slow onset and only effects the mucosa and submucosa is likely caused by what?
- Cardiac failure
- Vasoconstricitve drugs
An Ischemic bowel with a fast onset that involved the whole segment and causes necrosis is likely from what?
What is transmural infarction?
The whole segment of the bowel dies
What is it called when an entire section of the bowel dies?
Bowel Ischemis is common in what age group?
What complications can occur due to Ischemic bowel disease?
- Necrosis of bowel tissue
- Perforation (can be fatal)
What complication of Ischemic bowel disease can be fatal?
What are Hemorrhoids?
Abnormal dilation of anal venous plexus
What is the name for abnormal dilation of anal venous plexus?
What ways do Hemorrhoids present themselves?
- Chronic constipation
What other disease puts people at risk for Hemorroids?
- Portal hypertension
- Cirrhosis of the liver
What types of microorganisms can cause food poisoning?
What type of bacteria commonly cause food poisoning (5)?
- E. coli
What type of protozoa usually causes food poisoning?
What re the three MOST common causes of food poisoning an infectious diarrhea?
- E. coli (exotoxigenic strain)
What strain type of E. coli is a main cause of infectious diarrhea?
What is bacterial enterocolitis?
Bacterial ability to adhere to and invade the mucosa of the GI (toxin also produced)
What is the term for bacteria that can adhere to and invade the mucosa of the GI and produce a toxin?
What is dysentery?
Blood stained stool
What symptoms does food poisoning and infectious diarrhea have?
- Mucosal inflammation
- Diarrhea (varying in severity and duration)
- Blood stained stool (dysentery)
Mucosal inflammation in the GI, Diarrhea and blood stained stool are common symptoms of what disease?
Infectious diarrhea or food poisoning
What causes Traveler’s diarrhea?
ETEC = toxin producing E.coli
What bacteria causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis?
Clostridium difficile causes what mucosal disease?
Clostridium difficle indirectly or directly causes disease?
Indirectly through a toxin
What can cause an infection of clostridium difficle?
Prolonged antibiotics that alter the GI flora
Describe pseudomembranous enterocolitis:
Membrane forms in GI made of mucus, fibrin and inflammatory cells
What test is used to determine a C. diff infection?
What does the Xpect test for C. diff specifically test for?
C. diff toxin
What are the three major areas of Malabsorption causes?
- Reduced surface area of GI
- Defective digestion
Reduced surface are of the GI, defective digestion and Infection can all cause what disease?
What are the three most common causes of malabsorption in the U.S.?
- Celiac sprue
- Pancreatic insufficiency
- Crohn’s Disease
What is a common cause of reduced surface are in the GI?
- Celiac’s disease gluten sensitivity)
- Crohn’s disease
Describe the pathology of Celiac disease?
- Mucosal degeneration
What disease has the pathology of mucosal degeneration, atrophy and inflammation of the bowel?