PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15 -8

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PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15 -8
2013-04-06 23:27:27
PTG 105 Exam Lecture 15

PTG 105 - Exam 3 - Lecture 15 -8
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  1. Describe the inflammation that results from Ulcerative colitis:
    • Mucosal
    • Ulcerations
    • Crypt abscesses
  2. What disease is described as having a “lead pipe” colon on a barium study?
    Crohn’s disease (due to fibrosis)
  3. Describe the ulcers that form in Crohn’s disease:
    Deep with fissures
  4. Which inflammatory bowel disease is more likely to exhibit granulomas?
  5. What other than UC or Crohn’s can cause granulomas in the bowel?
  6. What is transmural inflammation?
    Inflammation involving the entire thickness of the bowel wall
  7. What type of inflammation involves the entire thickness of the wall?
  8. Why should you avoid surgery with Crohn’s disease?
    Risk of fistula
  9. What disease has a risk of fistula with surgical intervaniton?
    Crohn’s disease
  10. How is inflammatory bowel disease treated?
    • Anti-inflammatory drugs (salicylates)
    • Sulfasalazine
    • Corticosteroids
    • Nutritional support
    • Surgery
  11. Colonic Diverticulosis can be described as:
    Out-pouchings of colonic mucosa through the muscularis
  12. What disease can be described as out-pouchings of the colonic mucosa through the muscularis?
    Colonic diverticulosis
  13. Where is Colonic diverticulosis most commonly found?
    The left colon (excluding the rectum)
  14. What age group has the highest prevalence of colonic diverticulosis?
    Over 60 years
  15. How does colonic diverticulosis manifest itself?
    • Usually asymptomatic
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Altered bowel function
  16. What disease is usually asymptomatic but can manifest as abdominal cramps and altered bowel function?
    Colonic Diverticulosis
  17. What are complications of colonic diverticulitis?
    • Bleeding
    • Perforation
  18. What is diverticulitis?
    Inflammation of the diverticuli
  19. What is the inflammation of the diverticuli called?
  20. What are the two factors of pathogenesis in colonic diverticulitis?
    Increased intraluminal pressure and defect in muscle wall of colon
  21. Colonic polyps can be described as:
    Pediculated mass that projects into the bowel lumen
  22. Pedenculated masses that project into the bowel lumen are called:
    Colonic polyps
  23. What types of non-neoplastic colonic polyps exist?
    • Hyperplastic
    • Juvenile/Retention polyps
  24. What type of colonic polyps are hyperplastic and Retention/Juvenile polyps?
  25. What does neoplastic mean?
    Pre-cancerous or Cancerous
  26. What does non-neoplastic mean?
  27. What type of neoplastic colonic polyp exists?
    • Adenoma
    • What types of Colonic polyp adenomas are there?
    • Tubulovillous
    • Tubular
    • Villous
  28. What type of colonic polyp can be classified as Tubulovillus, villus and tubular?
    Neoplastic polyps
  29. Which type colonic polyp has the highest risk of developing into a malignant tumor?
    Villous adenomas
  30. How are colonic polyps detected?
    Usually at sigmoidoscopy
  31. Sigmoidoscopy is a good way to detect what disease of the colon?
    Colonic polyps
  32. What is the manifestation of Colonic polyps?
    Usually asymptomatic
  33. Colon cancer has what prognosis?
  34. What is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., just after lung cancer?
    Colon cancer
  35. What is the most common type of bowel cancer?
    Colon cancer
  36. What are the four predisposing factors for Colon Carcinoma?
    • Ulcerative Colitis
    • Adenoma
    • Familial adenomatous polyposis
    • Dietary factors (low fiber, high fat)
  37. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a genetic disease that has what dominance pattern?
    Autosomal dominant
  38. What is an autosomal dominant disease that predisposes patients to Colon caner?
    Familial adenomatous polyposis
  39. What dietary factors can lead to colon cancer?
    • Low fiber
    • High fat
  40. How many colon cancers are sporadic?
  41. What are the two pathways that when disrupted can lead to colorectal cancer?
    • APC/Beta catenin pathway
    • DNA mismatch repair pathway
  42. Which genetic pathway that when disturbed can cause colorectal cancer is a tumor suppressor gene?
    • APC/Beta catenin pathway
    • In Carcinoma of the colon what is an uncommon manifestation?
    • Abdominal mass
  43. What are the 5 manifestations of Colon cancer discussed in class?
    • Change in bowel movements
    • Occult fecal or fresh blood
    • Iron deficiency
    • Lesions seen or felt
    • Abdominal mass
  44. Colon cancer patient usually present symptoms early in the disease (T/F)?
    False, can go asymptomatic for a long time
  45. An iron deficiency and anemia in an older man is a sign of what disease?
    Gastrointestinal cancer
  46. What is an important prognostic indicator for colon cancer?
    TNM Staging