Childhood Exam

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Childhood Exam
2013-04-07 01:44:23

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  1. 1.   What are the four language systems?
    • Phonemes:
    • SOUNDS of a language

    • Difference
    • between fa and ba

    Babies hear a lot of them

    • Distinguish phonemes early on- deteriorates later(8-10 monthes)- CRITICAL PERIOD to learn
    • language

    We are BIOLOGICALLY prepared to learn language

    • Infants
    • can differentiate speech- slow and exaggerated, babies love.


    • Semantics:
    • study of WORDS and their MEANINGS

    • Grammar:
    • RULES used to describe STRUCTURE and LANGUAGE

    • Pragmatics:
    • how people use LANGUAGE  to COMMUNICATE
    • effectively
  2. How do infants perceive speech
    • Babies hear phonemes
    • Biologically prepared to learn language
    • can differentiate speech like slow and exaggerated
  3. What is infant directed speech and how does it help language develop?
    • Adults speak slow and exaggerated
    • change pitch and loudness
    • attracts infants attention

    • Helps because...
    • More salient language cues/ pronounced vowels
    • can segment words more effectively
  4. What do infants attend to the first 18 months when they listen to language? What happens after 18 months?
  5. What are the five steps to speech production?
    • 2 months- cooing (vowel- like sounds)
    • 6 months- babbling (speech-like sound with no meaning

    • 8-11 months- babbling with intonation (rising or falling pitch) babbling depends on the speech they hear
    • Melody of language is important
    • take turn, pause, wait
    • first words around first birthday
  6. What is name explosion and fast mapping?
    Name explosion: learn words rapidly  2-200 in the first 2 years

    Fast mapping: learning words meaning so rapidly that the child cant be considering all possible meanings
  7. How do Children figure out the meaning of words? What strategies do they use?
    • Joint Attention:  
    • Constraints:
    • Sentence Cues:
  8. What is over extenstion, underextension, and overregularization
  9. How does the production of sentences develop?
    Telegraphic in 2 year olds

    • Gradually adds gramatical morphemes
    • (words or endings of words that make sentence gramatical)

    Mastery of grammar by rule based learning errors of overregularization occur

    3-6 years- learn negation, use embedded sentences  understand passive voice
  10. What is Temperament?
    • behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations 
    • biologically based
  11. What are the 9 temperamental dimensions of Thomas and Chess's theory?
    • Adaptability
    • Activity Level
    • Approach-Withdrawal
    • Attention Span
    • Distractibility
    • Intensity of Response
    • Rythmicity
    • Threshold of Responsiveness
    • Quality of Mood