Wild Fire 4-6-13 Part 2

Card Set Information

Wild Fire 4-6-13 Part 2
2013-05-01 01:20:04
BSA 47

Show Answers:

  1. What are the three stages of a thunderstorm? 100
    • Cumulus
    • Mature
    • Dissipating
  2. What % of a slope will a fire doubling rate of spread? 104
    30% slope and double again on a 55% slope
  3. What are the 3 principle environmental elements affecting wildland fires?  TQ 104
    Weather, topography and fuels
  4. What is the term used when a fire burns to a point where the slope changes, such as the top of the range or the bottom of the canyon?  TQ 105
    Slope reversal
  5. What is the word that describe the direction that a slope is facing?  TQ 105
  6. Where is a good place to construct Fireline? 105
    Ridge tops
  7. What has a direct effect on fire spread by pre heating fuels above the fire? 105
  8. What aspect usually has the lighter and flashier fuels & the lowest moisture content.  TQ 106
  9. Fires on these aspects usually have the fastest rate of spread.  TQ  106
  10. This aspect receives the highest levels of solar radiation and therefore have the highest average temperatures.  TQ 106
  11. Which aspects are the most vulnerable to fire 107
    South and southwest
  12. What are often one of the best places to construct fire line in steep country? 108
    Ridges-rigid lines
  13. What plays a large role in determining both the condition and amount of fuel in an area?  TQ 111
  14. What are the 5 factors affecting topography? 112
    • Slope
    • Aspect
    • Shape of country
    • Elevations
    • Barriers
  15. Fuels can be divided into three groups or levels? 116
    Ground Surface, Aerial
  16. What fuel group is deep duff, roots, rotten buried logs? 116
    Ground fuels
  17. What fuel group is grass, forest letter and brush up to 6 feet called? 116
    Surface fuels
  18. What fuel group is brush over 6 feet, limbs, trees, trunks, and crowns called? 116
    Aerial fuels
  19. The amount (volume) of fuel available for a fire to burn is called? 118
    Fuel loading
  20. What is the fuel load range for Grassy fuels?  TQ 118
    1 to 3 or 5 tons/acre (answer is different in 2 places on the same page)
  21. How many tons per acre in timber do wildland fuel loads range?  TQ 118
    Over 200 tons per acre
  22. What are the two types of fuel moisture? 120
    Live and dead fuel moisture
  23. What 4 things are dead fuel moisture influenced by? 120
    • Relative humidity
    • Precipitation
    • Temperature
    • Wind
  24. What are the 3 fuel factors that affect fire behavior?  121
    • Moisture content
    • Size and shape
    • Loading
  25. How many degrees increase in temperature, would cause the fire to double in speed? 121
  26. What are the 4 environmental factors that directly influence dead fuel moisture?  121
    • Relative humidity
    • Precipitation
    • Temperature
    • Wind
  27. What are the 6 factors that influence fuel moisture? 122
    • Aspect
    • Time of year
    • Elevation
    • Slope
    • Wind
    • Rain
  28. This is the moisture found in living, growing fuels.  TQ 124
    Live fuel moisture
  29. This fuel moisture is changed by the moisture content of the air.  TQ 124
    Dead fuel moisture
  30. Be on the alert for extreme burning conditions when the fuel moisture reaches these levels?  124
    • 1 hour fuels when the relative humidity is at 25% or below
    • 10 hour fuels are at 7% or below
    • 1000 hour fuels are at 13% or below
  31. What do you call the time it takes for the moisture content of fuels and the surrounding air to equalize? 124
    Time lag
  32. Most wildland fires occur in these types of fuels.  TQ 126
    A grass or light fuels
  33. What are the 3 factors that control how well the grass will burn? 126
    • Level of curing
    • Amount of fuel
    • Dead fuel moisture
  34. What has an impact on how a fire spreads; the rate of spread; and whether the fire will move along the surface or through the crowns, or both.  Page 128
    The horizontal continuity or distribution of fuels
  35. What is the Wildland Fire Environment?  TQ page 132
    Weather, fuel, and topography
  36. What are the2 most important topographic features affecting wildland fires?  TQ 132
    Steepness of slope and aspect
  37. What is the most important weather factor affecting wildland fires? 132
    The wind
  38. What are the 3 most important weather components?
    • Wind
    • Temperature
    • Relative humidity
  39. What is the 2 most important fuel factor affecting wildland fires? 133
    Fuel moisture and temperature
  40. At what degree does combustion usually occur in wildland fuels?  TQ 134
  41. What are the 4 primary factors which affect the ignition of wildland fuels?  TQ 134
    • Size and shape of fuels
    • Compactness or arrangement of fuels
    • Fuel moisture content
    • Fuel temperature
  42. Firebrands are moved by 4 different forces? 134
    • Popping
    • Convection
    • Winds
    • Gravity
  43. How is fire spread measured in rate? 136
    In miles per hour or chains per hour
  44. What are the 3 factors that influence the direction of the fire? 141
    • Wind
    • Slope
    • Condition of the fuels
  45. What determines how and why are you should fight fire? 142
    Fire behavior characteristics
  46. At what height flame lengths are handtools ineffective? 143
    Over 4 feet
  47. The relationship between the flame zone and unburned fuel is changed in the same way by? 144
    A 50% slope or 5 MPH wind
  48. What are the 7 factors that constitute the fire environment.  TQ 144
    • Fuel characteristics
    • Fuel moisture
    • Fuel temperature
    • Topography/aspect (TQ)
    • Wind
    • Atmospheric stability
    • Fire behavior
  49. What is usually the carrier of the fire, even in timber? 145
    Fine fuels
  50. If the spacing of the crowns is less than how many feet apart do you have the potential for crown fire? 146
    20 feet
  51. What is the prime reason why fine fuels are involved in so many fatal fires? 147
    There fuel moisture changes constantly and quickly
  52. If you are told 1000 hour fuels are at 20% will they burn? 147 TQ
  53. What is the most influential factor when it comes to the fires rate and direction of spread?  Page 149
  54. What indicates high winds, and may be signaling a wind shift? 150
    Fast moving clouds
  55. If you have the thunderstorm within how many miles of your fire, should you be prepared for strong, erratic winds? 151
    10 miles
  56. What does a sudden calming of winds, or a shifting or wavering smoke column, indicate? 151
    That the wind direction will be changing
  57. What can you expect if the small column is well developed rises to considerable height and is capped with a very white cloud?  TQ 152
    Intense burning conditions and unpredictable fire spread in all directions
  58. What is one of the best indicators of fire behavior? 152
    Smoke columns
  59. What allows a fire to develop vertically and grow rapidly? 152
    An unstable atmosphere
  60. What does the presence of fire whirls indicate? 153
    Unstable air and that the fire is growing vertically
  61. What indicator in fire behavior could be the result of high temperatures, lower relative humidity, or increase in wind? 152
    A smoldering fire that is beginning to pick up
  62. What are 3 environmental factors that contribute to extreme fire behavior? 155
    • Availability of fuel
    • A wind event
    • Drying, unstable air mass
  63. What type of fires are one of nature's most dramatic and spectacular events and are the fastest spreading of all fires?  TQ page 157
    Crown fires
  64. What type of fire is usually confined to one tree or a small group of trees? 157
    A Passive crown fire and is commonly called torching out
  65. What fuels contain volatile oils that support combustion ? 158
    • Chamise
    • Jack pine
    • Palmetto/gallberry
  66. This is the worst kind of firebrand.  These firebrands can be large and flat, and easily lifted and carry great distances.  TQ page 161
  67. What are the 2 types of spotting? TQ 161
    Short range in long range
  68. What is defined as spotting that is quickly overrun by the main front of the fire? TQ 161
    Short range spotting
  69. What can contribute to the spread of fire, but in the same way that a new fire would? TQ 161
    Long range spotting
  70. What type of spot fire, only 50 feet from the main fire and can create a new fire is also defined as?  TQ page 162
    Long range spotting
  71. What type of fire can have a sudden increase in fire intensity, spotting in all directions, and downdrafts that should be a major concern?  TQ 165
    Plume-driven fire
  72. What is a major concern in a wind driven fire? 165
    Wind shifts
  73. What 2 things can happen whenever you have a plume-driven fire? 165
    • There can be a sudden increase in fire intensity
    • Spotting occurs in all directions?.. TQ
  74. What is the most effective fire suppressing agent known? 167
  75. When would you want to use a straight stream on a wildland fire? TQ 169
    • To reach in and cool an area of fire, so you can move in and start using a spray
    • For fire high up in a tree
    • A hot spot and the line that you need to knock down
    • To penetrate deep into soil or ash pile during mop up
  76. What is the ratio of class a foam concentrate to water?  TQ 171
    0.1 to 1.0%
  77. What type of nozzles can produce foam with a mixing ratio from 0.1 to 0.3 percent foam solution.? 174
    Conventional nozzles
  78. What type of line is a fire line that has been controlled? 181
    Cold line
  79. If you don't implement this tactic your fire will probably move around your line and outflank you.  TQ 182
    Anchor your line
  80. The steeper the slope, what needs to be wider? 185
    The fire line
  81. What 3 things dictates the width of the Fireline? 185
    • Fuel
    • Topography
    • Fire behavior
  82. What 5 things should you consider when constructing fireline? 188
    • Fuel type
    • Fuel Height
    • Fuel Density
    • Fuel Size
    • Fuel Condition
  83. What is an indirect attack tactic used to slow or fast burning fire? 190
  84. What is done to remove fuels between the fire and the fireline? 190
    Burning out
  85. What is a low intensity fire, designed to back into the wind from an established a fire line or barrier? 193
    Backing fire
  86. What type of fire is set along the control line parallel to the wind and allowed to spread at right angles to, and towards, the main fire? 194
    Flanking fire
  87. What firing technique is used when you want to widen in a fire line quickly? 194
    Strip firing
  88. What is the most common firing technique? 194
    Strip Firing
  89. This type of firing is used when you are trying to save a valuable resource like a structure, or a historic or archaeological site.  TQ 196
    Ring firing
  90. When you consider the influences of weather, you need to be thinking in terms of?  TQ 201
    The past, present, and most importantly the future
  91. What do you call overall plans of action to control the fire? 201
  92. What do you call techniques to accomplish the strategy? 201
  93. What type of fire produces a thin smoke column that rises lazily and is light blue to light gray in color? 205
    A camp fire
  94. What type of fire produces a narrow, thin smoke column that is dark on color? 205
    Diesel powered equipment
  95. Operations may vary in size, but the overall priorities are the same.  The four general priorities are? TQ 209
    • Life safety-the protection of human life is always the first priority.
    • Property protection
    • Resource protection
    • Incident stabilization
  96. What are broad statements that describe major actions to be taken on a fire? 210
    The strategic objectives
  97. What is the best type of topographic map? 211
    A 7.5-minute topographic map
  98. If the flame length is over a certain amount of feet the fire is probably burning too intensely for a direct attack.  How many feet?  213
    4 feet
  99. What are the 4 deployment strategies for a direct attack?  Page 214
    • Flanking attack
    • Tandem attack
    • Pincer attack
    • Envelopment attack
  100. What type of fire attack involves establishing several anchor points and attacking from several locations at the same time in a coordinated effort? 214
    Envelopment attack