Alcamos Ch 10 Diseases

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medic11
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211985
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Alcamos Ch 10 Diseases
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2013-04-08 21:44:47
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BI 301
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Diseases in Ch 10
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  1. The target of chlamydial pneumonia is what system?
    LRT
  2. Chlamydial pneumonia is caused by ___ ___.
    Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  3. How is chlamydial pneumonia transmitted?
    Inhalation of resp droplets
  4. Is chlamydial pneumonia prevalent in any particular groups and if so what are they?
    Yes in young adults and college students
  5. What are the S&S if chlamydial pneumonia?
    • Fever
    • HA
    • Nonproductive cough
  6. What is tx for chlamydial pneumonia?
    Doxycycline or Erythromycin
  7. What is the best way to prevent chlamydial pneumonia?
    Good hygiene
  8. Streptococcal pharyngitis is popularity known as ___ ___.
    Strep throat
  9. ___ ___ is a malady of the URT that is characterized by sore throat, fever, HA, swollen lymph nodes and tonsils.
    Streptococcal pharyginitis
  10. How is streptococcal pharyngitis transmitted?
    • Inhalation of resp droplet 
    • Close contact
  11. Strep throat is prevalent in what grp?
    Children
  12. What are 2 possible complications of streptococcal pharyngitis?
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Retropharyngeal abscesses
  13. ____ is commonly used to tx streptococcal pharyngitis.
    Penicillin
  14. Differential diagnosis for strep throat could be what 2 things?
    • Viral sore throat
    • Infectious mononucleosis
  15. Acute glomerulonephritis described as what?
    Rare, inflammatory response fr the glomerulus to specific types of M proteins
  16. Diphtheria is caused by ___ ___ and shows up in what system in the body?
    • Corynebacterium diptheriae
    • URT
  17. Diphtheria is transmitted via what 2 methods?
    • Direct contact
    • Inhalation of aerosolized secretions
  18. What are 5 S&S of diphtheria?
    • Sore throat
    • Low grade fever
    • Swollen neck
    • Adherent membrane on tonsils, pharynx &/or nasal cavity
    • Fatigue
  19. Diphtheria has become prevalent in ___ due to ___ immunity.
    • Adults
    • Waning
  20. What are 4 possible complications of diphtheria?
    • Airway obstruction
    • Abnormal cardiac rhythms
    • Paralysis
    • Polyneuritis
  21. ___, ___ & ___ are all used to tx diphtheria.
    • Penicillin 
    • Erythromycin
    • Metronidazole
  22. Is there a vaccine for diphtheria?
    Yes - DTaP
  23. Epiglottitis is caused by ___ ___ and transmitted how?
    • Haemophilus influenzae type b
    • Inhalation
  24. The signs and symptoms of epiglottitis include. . .
    • Fever
    • Diff swallowing
    • Drooling
    • Hoarseness
    • Stridor
    • Cyanosis
  25. Kids with epiglottitis need what interventions?
    • Antibiotics
    • Low lights
    • Keep calm
    • POC
    • Possible airway mgmt
  26. Can we vaccinate for epiglottitis and if yes with what?
    Yes with Hib vaccine
  27. What could epiglottitis be confused with?
    • Croup
    • Peritonsillar abscess
    • Retropharyngeal abscess
  28. An inflammation of the paranasal sinuses fr infection, allergy or an autoimmune issue is known as ___.
    Sinusitis
  29. Sinusitis is caused by what?
    • Indigenous microbiota
    • Allergies
    • Structural abnormalities in the sinuses
  30. Sinusitis is characterized by what 6 S&S?
    • Pain
    • Tenderness
    • Swelling
    • HA
    • Pain worsens when bending or lying down
    • Possible toothache
  31. What are 3 ways treat sinusitis?
    • Nasal sprays
    • Antibiotics
    • Surgical intervention
  32. The best way to prevent sinusitis is what?
    Minimize contact with individuals w/colds
  33. What is a problem that occurs with chronic sinusitis?
    A biofilm forms making eradication difficult
  34. Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of what disease?
    Scarlet fever
  35. Scarlet fever is an upper resp infection that is prevalent in what are grp & spread via mechanism?
    • 4-8 y/o children
    • Inhalation
  36. The S&S of scarlet fever are . . .
    • Sore throat
    • Fever 
    • Red rash and tongue
    • Swollen glands
  37. What makes the Streptococcus pyogenes in scarlet fever special?
    The bacteria have prophages that code for erythrogenic exotoxins 
  38. Name four complications that could arise fr scarlet fever.
    • Ear & sinus infections 
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
    • Sepsis
  39. What antibiotics are used to treat Streptococcus pyogenes?
    • Penicillin
    • Clindamycin
    • Erythromycin
  40. Acute otitis media targets what organisms?
    Human and animal
  41. Acute otitis media is an upper resp infection that is caused by what 2 bacteria?
    • Streptococcus pneumonae
    • Haemophilus influenzae
  42. What are S&S of otitis media?
    • Ear pain
    • Red, bulging ear drum
    • Fever
    • Ear drainage
    • HA 
    • Trbl sleeping
    • Irritability
  43. What are the three primary stages of acute otitis media?
    Common cold--> inflamed eustacian tubes--> red ear drum/ear pain
  44. Acute otitis media is most prevalent in ___ and transmitted via what route?
    • Children
    • Airborne contact
  45. Tx of acute otitis media is what 2 things while the best prevention is what?
    • Wait and see followed by antibiotics
    • Limit child time in daycare
  46. Otitis external is described as what?
    Inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal
  47. Otitis externa targets the ____ in both ___ & ___.
    • URT
    • Humans and animals
  48. Otitis external is most often transmitted via ___ therefore it is prevalent in ____.
    • Contaminated water
    • Swimmers
  49. The causative agents of otitis externa are what three species?
    • Staphylococcus 
    • Streptococcus
    • Pseodomonas
  50. Treatments for otitis externa include. . . .
    • Avoid getting water or sm objects in ears
    • Remove debris fr ears
    • Topical solutions
    • Oral meds
  51. How is otitis externa prevented?
    • Wearing ear plugs
    • Avoid inserting ANYTHING in ear
  52. Bacterial meningitis targets the ___ in ___.
    Brain in humans
  53. Bacterial meningitis is transmitted via what?
    Resp droplets
  54. The S&S of bacterial meningitis include . . . 
    • Fever
    • Stiff neck
    • Severe HA
    • N/V
    • Sensitivity to light
  55. Bacteria given credit for bacterial meningitis include . . . 
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Haemhilus influenzae type b 
  56. Bacterial meningitis is most prevalent among what age grp but can be prevented by what means?
    • Children 1 month - 2 yrs
    • Vaccination
  57. What causes bacterial meningitis?
    It usually begins as a local infection such as a URT infection that develops into a blood infection that invades the meninges
  58. The formation of lesions in the adrenal glands accompanied by hormone imbalances resulting fr the release of a bacterial endotoxin into the blood is characteristic of what syndrome?
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen
  59. Bacterial pertussis is commonly know as ___ ___ and is a malady affecting the ___.
    • Whooping cough
    • LRT
  60. Pertussis is characterized by what S&S?
    • Malaise 
    • Low grade fever 
    • Severe cough
    • Paroxysms
  61. Paroxysms are described as what?
    Rapid fire staccato coughs all in one exhalation followed by a forced inhalation over a partially closed glottis
  62. What are the 2 phases of pertussis and what characterizes them?
    • Catarrhal - general malaise, low grade fever, increasingly severe cough
    • Paroxysmal - disintegrating cells, mucus accumulation, diff breathing
  63. What is the mechanism for the transmission of pertussis?
    Resp droplets are inhaled and adhere to epithelial cells in the mouth and throat
  64. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of what disease?
    Pertussis or Whooping Cough
  65. ____ can be used to tx pertussis or it can be prevented with the ___ vaccine.
    • Erythromycin
    • DTaP
  66. TB is a malady of the LRT that causes what S&S?
    • Cough
    • Weight loss
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Night sweats
    • Chills
    • Breathing pain
  67. TB is caused by the ___ ___ bacterium that is transmitted via what mechanism?
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Inhalation of resp droplets
  68. Stage 1 of TB ia called ___ and is characterized by what?
    Infection stage - pulmonary infection, cells enter alveoli, pt tests pos for TB but doesn't show up on chest xray
  69. What is the second stage of TB called and what characterizes it?
    Disease stage - primary & secondary TB, tubercle formation shows on X-ray
  70. Treating TB is accomplished how?
    Multiple different antibiotics over a long period of time
  71. T or F: TB can be prevented by vaccination?
    True
  72. What is the Mantoux test?
    A test for TB where PPD is injected intradermally in the forearm & 48 hrs later it is checked for induration
  73. Infectious bronchitis targets the ___ and is transmitted via ___.
    • LRT
    • Inhalation
  74. S&S of infectious bronchitis include. . . .
    • Runny nose
    • Sore throat
    • Chills
    • General Malaise 
    • Slight fever 
    • Dry cough
    • Linings of main airways inflamed & infected
  75. What are the 4 causative agents of infectious bronchitis?
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae
  76. Infectious bronchitis often starts out as what then progresses to what?
    Common cold then progresses to acute bronchitis
  77. Tx for infectious bronchitis include what 2 modalities?
    • Most go away on their own
    • Antibiotics if bacterial
  78. How can infectious bronchitis be prevented?
    • Annual flue vaccine
    • Good hygiene
  79. What are the 4 causative agents of typical pneumonia?
    • Haemophilus influenzae 
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  80. Haemophilus influenzae associated with typical pneumonia is spread how and tx with what?
    • Inhalation of nonencapsulated H. influenzae
    • Tx w/trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole
  81. Staphylococcus aureus related to typical pneumonia is characterized by what 2 things?
    • Bacterial cells in the lungs
    • Development of severe necrotizing pneumonia
  82. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacteria that targets who?
    Those who are immunocompromised, have chronic lung disease or are on mechanical vents
  83. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated rod that occurs naturally where?
    In the URT
  84. What 3 places is Klebsiella pneumoniae typically found?
    • Alcoholics
    • COPD patients
    • SNFs
  85. Klebsiella pneumoniae is set apart fr other pneumonias by what 2 characteristics? 
    • Sudden onset
    • Reddish brown sputum
  86. Standard S&S of typical pneumonia are (6) what?
    • Chills
    • Fever
    • Sweating
    • SOB
    • CP 
    • Cough w/thick greenish or yellow sputum
  87. Typical pneumonia is routinely tx with ___.
    Antibiotics
  88. What are the 2 causative agents for atypical pneumonia?
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae - primary atypical 
    • Legionella pneumophila
  89. Why is Mycoplasma pneumoniae known as "primary pneumonia?"
    Because it occurs in previously healthy individuals
  90. S&S of atypical pneumonia include what?
    • Fever
    • Hacking Cough
    • Fatigue
    • HA
  91. An infection caused by Legionella pneumophila is aka what disease and is known to cause what other disease?
    • Legionnaires disease
    • Pontiac fever
  92. Atypical pneumonia is said to be more insidious than typical pneumonia.  What does this mean?
    It's has fewer specific symptoms that typical pneumonia
  93. Pain in muscles or muscle grps is known as ___.
    Myalgia
  94. What do Mycoplasma pneumoniae colonies look like on blood agar?
    Like fried eggs
  95. How is Legionnaires disease spread?
    It lives nr water and becomes airborne in the wind. The disease is then inhaled
  96. What grps are prevalent to get Legionnaires disease?
    Older adults and immunocompromised
  97. What are the best ways to prevent atypical pneumonia?
    Extreme cleaning and disinfecting of water sys, pools and spas
  98. Mycoplasma pneumoniae & Legionella pneumoniae cause infections where?
    LRT
  99. Coxiella burnetii causes what disease and is related to what other bacteria?
    • Q fever
    • Legionella
  100. What bacteria causes Q fever and how is it spread?
    • Coxiella burnetii
    • It is spread inhaling organisms in contaminated barnyard dust, handling infected animals or consuming infected raw milk or cheese
  101. What are the S&S of Q fever?
    • Most remain asymptomatic 
    • Other have severe HA, fever, dry cough & lesions on their lungs
  102. Q fever can be tx w/___.
    AntibioticsAntibiotics
  103. Is there a vaccine for Q fever?
    There is for those in high risk occupations
  104. Q fever, psittacosis and pneumococcal pneumonia are all maladies effecting the ___.
    LRT
  105. What is the causative agent of psittacosis?
    Chlamydophila psittaci
  106. How is psittacosis transmitted?
    Via inhalation of airborne dust or dried droppings fr bird feces
  107. What is the disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci called and what S&S does it cause?
    • Psittacosis 
    • HA, fever, fatigue, dry cough, scattered patches of infection in lung tissue
  108. Who is most prevalent to get psittacosis and how can it be prevented?
    • Women 25-49
    • Keeping susceptible birds away fr infecting agent
  109. Psittacosis is treated with ___.
    Antibiotics
  110. What is the name given to a microbial disease of the bronchial tubes and lungs called and what bacteria causes it?
    • Pneumococcal pneumonia 
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  111. Streptococcal pneumoniae targets the ___ and causes what?
    • LRT
    • Causes inflammation or build up of fluid in alveoli
  112. Pneumococcal pneumonia is transmitted by what mechanism?
    Inhalation or contact
  113. The S&S of a streptococcus pneumoniae infection are . . . .
    • High fever
    • Sharp CP
    • Diff breathing
    • Rust colored sputum
  114. Pneumococcal pneumonia is prevalent in what groups?
    • Infants
    • Elderly
    • Immunocompromised
    • Malnourished
    • Smokers
    • Those w/previous infection
    • Those on drugs that suppress immune system
  115. What disease is the second leading cause of bacterial meningitis?
    Pneumococcal pneumonia
  116. Pneumonia involving and entire lung is known as ___ pneumonia and if both lungs are involved it is known as ___ pneumonia.
    • Lobar
    • Double
  117. Pneumonia that includes scattered patches of infection in resp passageways is known as ___ ___.
    Broncho pneumonia
  118. Zoonotic refers to what characteristic of a disease?
    It is transmitted fr animals to humans
  119. Microbiologists prefer to call psittacosis by what name?
    Ornithosis

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