CM Final 3

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
211988
Filename:
CM Final 3
Updated:
2013-04-07 15:24:26
Tags:
aa emory clinical methods
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Description:
CM final - Endocrine System excluding hypo/hyperthyroidism (in notes)
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  1. Adenohypophysis is the __________ _______.
    Anterior Pituitary
  2. Neurohypophysis is the ___________ _______.
    Posterior pituitary
  3. Which hormone has the opposite effect of TRH on pituitary production of TSH?
    somatostatin
  4. Physical Exam for someone with thyroid dz?
    neck exam.  Check for growth, goiter, sweller and airway impairment.
  5. Labs needed for a pt with thyroid dz:
    TSH, T4, T3
  6. What does parathyroid hormone do?
    raise serum Ca2+ levels, while promoting bone reabsorption.  Kidneys - ^ renal reabsorption, ^ excretion of phosphate, bicarb, K, Na, aa's
  7. parathyroid hormone is ________ in hypocalcemia.
    increased
  8. A serum calcium of ______ indicates hyperparathyroidism.
    >10.5 mg/dL
  9. A ____ serum calcium indicates hypoparathyroidism.
    low
  10. Hypercalcemia can lead to:
    renal stones, polyuria, hypertn, constipation, fatigue, mental changes, bone pain
  11. Hypercalcemia can lead to:
    • tetany and spasms
    • tingling of limb, lips
    • abd cramps
    • pysch changes
    • + chvostek's and trousseau's sign
    • defective nails and teeth
    • cataracts
  12. Hypocalcemia most commonly seen after _________, or caused by ____________.
    • thyroidectomy
    • hypomagnesemia
  13. hypoparathyroidism tx:
    • *can be emergent after surgery
    • IV calcium, oral calcium, Vit D, magnesium
    • *goal is to get Ca in low to normal range
  14. most common cause of hyperparathyroidism is ________ ________.
    parathyroid adenoma
  15. parathyroid cancer is __________.
    UNcommon
  16. hyperparathyroidism is seen in ____ II.
    MEN
  17. Tx for HYPERparathyroidism:
    • parathyroidectomy for pts with:
    • kidney stones
    • bone dz

  18. name sign and indication.
    • Chvostek's sign
    • HYPOcalcemia
    • Trousseaus sign
    • HYPOcalcemia
  19. What labs are needed in a pt with parathyroid dz?
    • serum calcium
    • ionized calcium
    • albumin
    • serum magnesium
    • alkaline phos
    • serum phosphate
  20. History and PE of a pt with parathyroid dz is similar to that for ___________.
    Thyroid dz.
  21. What is the most common endcrine dz?
    DM
  22. What are the long term consequences of DM?
    • Eyes
    • Kidneys
    • Nerves
    • Blood vessels
  23. Pt's with DM are major risk for:
    • Heart dz
    • Stroke
    • Kidney dz
    • Blindness
    • Nontraumatic amputations
  24. What needs to be addressed in pt's with DM pt's?
    End organ fx
  25. DM type 1
    • NO insulin production.  possibly autoimmune destruction of islet cells of pancreas. 
    • Dependent on exogenous insulin
  26. DM type 2
    • insulin deficiency or resistance.
    • associated with: obesity, abnormal insulin levels, strong genetic component
  27. Gestational DM:
    • occurs in 4% of pregnancies
    • glucose intolerance ID'd during pregnancy
  28. TX of DM
    • Diet
    • oral hypoglycemic drugs
    • Exercise
    • Exogenous insulin
  29. DM anesthetic considerations by system:
    • Autonomic dysfx: temp control, BP, HR control
    • CV: CAD, silent ischemia
    • GI: slowed motility
  30. DM considerations for surgery
    • Labs needed: hemoglobin A1C
    • Glucose control- control can affect healing

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