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A substance that alters physiologic function with the potential for affecting health
a substance administered for therapeutic effects.
The science of drugs, incuding source of chemistry and actions of drugs
What are the four separate names for each drug?
- Chemical name
- Generic name
- Official or proprietary name (From company)
- Brand name
What a the resources used for drug nomenclature?
- PDR physicians desk reference
- USP United States Pharmacopoeia
- Specific drug packaging
The way in which drugs AFFECT the body?
The way in which drugs TRAVEL through the body to the appropriate receptor sites is.....
Note mostly through the bloodstream
The process involving the movement of a drug from the site of administration into the systemic circulation in order to provide a desired effect`
The process by which the body alters the chemical composition of a substance
Some drugs need to combine with proteins or cross membranes
True or false
What are the factors affecting the dosage and speed of absorption?
- -Route of entry
- -ph of recipient environment
- -solubility of the formula
- -drugs interaction with the body's chemicals
Name the pharmacologic principle:
Drugs travel the the circulatory system to it receptor site and then connect with the molecular for which it was designed
What are the Four pharmacologic Principles
THe organ where metabolism takes place
Name the pharmacologic principle:
THe body excretes drugs and their by-products through the kidneys tear ducts salivary glands intestines and mammary glands
The rate of excretion depends on what 3 things?
- -The body's systems
- -the drug's half-life
- -the concentration of the tissue
What 4 variables affect patient response to drugs?
- -Weight and physical condition
- -Personal and emotional requirements ( patients expectations can alter affect positive and negative
Why is age a variable in Patient Response?
- -Young-(less dose) body weight for dosage calculation
- -older- (sometimes more dose) because of impaired liver and kidney condition, decrease efficiency of organs, slowing circulation
What is average medication dosage based on?
healthy 150lb adult
Why would gender be a variable in patient response to medication dosage?
- -women have lower metabolize drugs differently.
- female hormones (estrogen) fat distribution and ratio, and body fluid alter metabolism
What are the Drug Related variables affecting patient response to dosage?
- -Side Effects
- -allergic reactions
- -cumulative effect
- -idiosyncratic effect
- -drug interactions
- -iatrogenic disease
What develops is the bodyis unable to detoxify and excrete a drug quickly enough or if too large of a dose is taken?
- cumulative effect
- the drug accumulates in the tissue and becomes toxic
What is an EXPECTED reaction to a medication?
What is an UNEXPECTED reaction to a medication that can range from mild to severe?
What is it called when a drug acts as an antigen and the body develops antibodies to that drug, reactions range from light rash to anaphylactic shock
True or False
Once an allergy develops, subsequent exposure the that drug increases in severity
What is it called when the body adapts to drug and patient requires greater doses to become effective
What are inexplicable and unpredicted symptoms caused by a GENETIC effect?
What occurs when a patient has extensive exposure to a drug?
What occurs when two or more drugs or a combination of of food and drugs can create a positive and negative effects
What disease is a result of long term use of a drug that damages organs or causes other disorders over time
What are the 6 rights of medication administration
- -identify right patient
- -select the right medication
- -give the right dose
- -give the right med at the right time
- -give the med by the right route
- -Ensure right documentation
true or false
Parenteral injections are classified as intradermal between layers
- SC under skin, in fat layer
- IM intramuscular, deltoid glut or thigh
If IV fluids leak from a vein or are accidentally injected outside the vein
usual needle gauges are
18-22 for adults
what is the difference between extravasation and infiltration?
- extravasation is fluid outside the vessel
- infiltration is fluid has diffused from the vessel
An agent that causes blistering