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What are some common problems caused by nutrition?
- salt toxicity
- iron deficiency
- heifer nutrition
- lactic acidosis
- selenium deficiency
- grass tetany
- milk fever
- fescue issues
Which species are affected by agroceriosis?
all species are suceptible
Which disease account for the largest loss of neonates?
What are the contributing factors to agroceriosis?
- poor mothering ability
- no milk/colostrum
- weak neonate due to dystocia
What is agalactia?
What are the many problems associated with the lack of groceries?
- lack of energy source (hypoglycemia)
- failure of passive transfer (FPT)
- labor intensive
Why is failure of passive transfer primarily a problem in large animal?
due to poor transplacental transfer of immunoglobulins so large animal neonates have to get it all from the colostrum
When do we test neonates to make sure they are getting proper colostrum and why? What tests can we use?
- test at 12 hours to allow adequate time for oral administration of colostrum
- total protein with refractometer (>5.5g/dl) or commercial ELISA test
What species does salt toxicity primarily affect?
How does salt toxicity often occur?
due to water deprivation - as short a period as 6 hours can be problematic
Why is salt toxicity a problem in swine?
due to high sodium levels in feed or water
When do clinical signs occur in pigs with salt toxicity?
due to increased sodium levels or after water replenishment
How does salt toxicity happen?
- sodium builds up in plasma then enters cells and affects cellular metabolism
- upon reintroduction to water, plasma osmotic pressure falls and water enters cells rapidly causing cellular edema and swelling
- most concerning in CNS tissue which is encased in body structures
What are the clinical signs of salt toxicity?
CNS signs: blindness, weakness, ataxia, tremors, coma, death
What is the treatment for salt toxicity?
- GRADUAL reintroduction to water
- mannitol, steroids, DMSO to decrease cerebral edema
Who does iron deficiency mainly affect?
Why do baby swine get iron deficiencies?
piglets are born with low levels of iron due to poor transplacental transmission of iron and sows milk is iron deficient
Are the clinical signs for iron deficiency acute or chronic?
can be either
Iron deficiency causes a ____ anemia due to lack of _____ production.
What is the treatment for an iron deficiency?
- parenteral is best
- 150mg iron dextram IM by day 3 and may be repeated on day 7 - 10
Why are confined piglets predisposed to an iron deficiency?
outdoor pigs lick a lot of dirt which has iron in it...pigs that are confined inside are not about to root and lick the dirt to get the necessary iron
For body condition score, the lower the number the _____ the animal.
What is the body condition score scale for beef cattle?
1 - 9 or 1 - 10
What is the body condition score scale for dairy cattle?
1 - 5
What is the goal for a body condition score for a beef cattle at calving?
What is the goal for a body condition score for a dairy cattle at calving?
3.5 at calving
What are key factors in an animal returning to estrus?
body condition and nutrition
What is the most nutritionally demanding life stage?
What are the goals for heifer nutrition?
- calve at 24 months of age
- BCS is more important than weight but on average, beef heifers 950 - 1050 lbs and dairy heifers 1200 - 1250 lbs at calving
Which species is enterotoxemia a primary concern in?
juvenile sheep, can also affect cattle and goats
What is enterotoxemia caused by?
toxins produced by Clostridium perfringes type D (type C can also cause GI problems in sheep)
What is another name for enterotoxemia?
- overeating disease
- pulpy kidney disease
How does enterotoxemia occur?
- animals normally ingest low levels of clostridium bacteria but the normal gut flora and rumen environment keep numbers of these organisms low
- overeating of concentrate upsets this delicate balance from overproduction of acid leading to overgrowth of clostridial organisma
What are the clinical signs of enterotoxemia?
- sudden death
- CNS signs: ataxia, blindness, head pressing, tremors, convulsions, opisthotonus, coma
What is the treatment for enterotoxemia?
antitoxin and sulfa or penicillin antibiotics
How can we prevent enterotoxemia?
vaccinate at 3 - 4 weeks, boost at weaning
What is polioencephalomalacia?
Who is affected by polioencephalomalacia?
young (several months - 2 years) sheep are most often affected, may occur in other ruminants
What causes polioencephalomalacia?
- caused by low roughage, high concentrate diet
- may also be caused by ingestion of certain thiaminase plants (horsetail, bracken fern)
What are the clinical signs for polioencephalomalacia?
What is the treatment for polioencephalomalacia?
- thiamine HCL - can use B complex as well
- steroids or mannitol in severe cases
What is the prognosis for polioencephalomalacia?
good if caught early
How do we prevent polioencephalomalacia?
increase roughage or add thiamine to feed
What is the etiology for ketosis?
energy output exceeding energy intake (a negative energy balance)
What can cause energy output to exceed energy intake?
- pregnancy toxemia
How does ketosis happen?
negative energy balance induces the mobilization of fat to be used as an energy source leading to the formation of excessive ketone bodies
What can happen if ketosis is severe?
animal may show CNS signs
If ketosis is not severe, what can it cause?
- decreased production
- weight loss
- depression and ill-thrift which may compound the problem
How do we diagnose ketosis?
- PE, history, ketone odor to breath
- measure ketones in blood, milk, urine
- PE and U/A are most popular with large animals
What is the treatment for ketosis?
- glucose IV initially (500ml 50% glucose in cattle)
- propylene glycol PO (1 pint in cattle) - rumen bugs can process this into energy
- glucocorticoids which stimulates the gluconeogenesis pathways
- insulin in severe cases
How do we prevent ketosis?
- adequate nutrition
- balanced rations for stage of pregnancy, lactation, etc.
Who does vitamin E/selenium deficiency mainly affect?
most notable in ruminants, but most species can be affected
Where in the US is vitamin E/selenium deficiency mainly a problem?
eastern and northwestern because these areas are soil deficient
What are the factors that limit availability in soil that could cause vitamin E/selenium deficiency?
- acidic pH
- high % legumes
- heavy mositure
- heavy fertilization
What can vitamin E/selenium deficiency cause?
- white muscle disease in everyone
- mulberry heart disease in pigs
- been linked to many problems - reproduction, immune, CNS disorders
How do we diagnose vitamin E/selenium deficiency?
- pale muscle tissue on necropsy
- blood selenium concentrations
- liver selenium concentrations
- response to therapy
How do we treat vitamin E/selenium deficiency?
injectable vitamin E/selenium
How do we prevent vitamin E/selenium deficiencies?
- feed additives - either vit E or Se
- prophylactic injections in neonates
What is another name for hypomagnesemia?
- grass tetany/grass staggers
- winter tetany
Which animal is hypomagnesemia a problem in?
What are the two scenarios that can cause hypomagnesemia?
- 1. lactating beef cows on lush spring grass pastures (low in Mg)
- 2. late gestation/early lactation beef cow in the winter on poor quality forage (with spring calvers)
What are the risk factors for hypomagnesemia?
- beef cows
What are the clinical signs of hypomagnesemia?
- recumbency but usually still alert
How do we diagnose hypomagnesemia?
- serum Mg levels
- response to treatmetn
What are the causes of downer cow syndrome?
- milk fever (hypocalcemia)
- mad cow disease
- calving paralysis
What is the treatment for hypomagnesemia?
- oral Mg replacement - pink pills (MgOH), gells (MgCL), Epsom salt (MgSO4)
- Mg containing IV solution
- IV followd by oral is best as relapses are common
How do we prevent hypomagnesemia?
- feed additives
- high Mg mineral salt - leave out all year
What are some other names for hypocalcemia?
- milk fever
- parturient paresis
What animal is hypocalcemia the biggest problem in?
What is hypocalcemia associated with?
parturient endocrine status of the animal
_____ of cases of hypocalcemia occur within 24 hours of calving.
Which dairy cows are most at risk for hypocalcemia?
What are the clinical signs of hypocalcemia?
- early signs of excitement and tetany are often missed
- head in flank
- coma and death can result
How do we diagnose hypocalcemia?
- serum Ca levels
- response to treatment
What is the treatment for hypocalcemia?
- oral Ca replacement (CaCl gels)
- Ca containing IV solutions given SLOWLY - monitor HR closely
How do we prevent hypocalcemia?
- small % of cases are expected
- Ca supplements at calving if incidence is greater than 10%
- nutritional management in the dry period
What is fescue?
cool season perennial
What does fescue have that could cause problems?
- endophyte fungus
- it is a toxin that can cause problems
What kind of problems can fescue cause in cattle?
- fescue foot
- bovine fat necrosis
- fescue toxicity which manifests itself as production losses - decreased wt. gain, milk production, feed intake, rough haircoat, increased body temperature, reproductive inefficiency
How do we help with fescue in cattle?
dilute the fescue out by planting other types of grasses as well
What types of horses are we concerned about fescue in?
only in broodmares
What can fescue cause in broodmares?
- prolonged gestation
- thickened or retained placenta
- dead foals
- dead mares
When should we stop feeding fescue to pregnant mares?
zero tolerance of fescue in the last 60 - 90 days of gestation