Immunology and Serology

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Immunology and Serology
2013-05-11 01:52:56
Streptococcal Syphilis Borrelia Burgdorferi Rubella Epstein Barr Viral Hepatitis HIV Serology

Streptococcal, Syphilis, Borrelia Burgdorferi, Rubella, Epstein-Barr, Viral Hepatitis, and HIV Serology
Show Answers:

  1. What bacteria causes pharyngitis, pyoderma, puerperal sepsis, and necrotizing fasciitis; and can produce a toxin that results in scarlet fever?
    Strep pyogenes (Group A)
  2. What clinical condition:
    Symptoms: carditis, chorea, erythema marginatum, polyarthritis, and/or subcutaneous nodules
    Occurs 3-4 weeks after infection
    Rheumatic fever
  3. What clinical condition:
    Symptoms: Proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, impaired renal function, and edema
    Occurs about 10 days after pharyngitis or 18-21 days after skin infection
  4. What is the cause of syphilis?
    Treponema pallidum - a spirochete
  5. What clinical condition:
    Has initial lesions that is painless, nonbleeding ulcer called chancres
    The chancre appears, on average, 2-3 weeks after initial infection
    Within a week after the chancre appears, lymph nodes enlarge
    Antibodies are produced 1-4 weeks after chancre appears
    Darkfield analysis of lesion demonstrates spirochetes
    Primary syphilis
  6. What clinical condition:
    Symptoms: skin rash, low grade fever, malaise, pharyngitis, weight loss, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy
    Spirochetes present throughout the body during this stage
    Ulcers develop on mucous membranes
    Secondary syphilis
  7. What clinical condition:
    Stage with no symptoms or signs
    Nontreponemal and treponemal serologic tests are positive
    Early stage: 1 in 4 individuals relapses into secondary symptoms
    Late stage: The patient is resistant to reinfection and to relapse
    Latency (stage of syphilis)
  8. What clinical condition:
    Symptoms occur 2-40 years after initial infection
    Gummatas (syphilis lesions due to hypersensitivity reaction to treponemal antigens) are found throughout the body
    Syphilitic aortitis, aortic valve insufficiency, and thoracic aneurysm are possible
    Can cause blindness and senility
    Tertiary syphilis
  9. Can treponema pallidum cross the placenta, if so, at what stage?
    Yes, during any stage of the disease
  10. What tests are used to identify syphilis?
    • VDRL
    • USR
    • RPR
    • TP-PA
    • FTA-ABS
  11. What tests areĀ used to detect syphilis in the primary stage?
    • RPR
    • VDRL
    • FTA
  12. What tests are used to detect syphilis in the secondary stage?
    • RPR
    • VDRL
    • FTA
  13. What test is used to detect syphilis in the tertiary stage?
  14. What causes Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis)?
    Borrelia burgdoferi - a spirochete
  15. How is Lyme disease contracted?
    Through a tick
  16. What clinical condition:
    Has a reddened area on the skin that occurs 2-32 days after being bitten by an infected tick
    Reddened area can develop into the classic target or "bull's eye" rash, called erythema chronicum migrans
    Early stage Lyme Disease
  17. What clinical condition:
    The most common symptom of the late stage is arthritis affecting the knees, shoulders, and elbows
    Approximately 15% exhibit aseptic meningitis, facial nerve palsy, encephalitis, cranial neuritis, and radiculoneuritis
    Chronic disease may present as a sclerotic or atrophic skin lesion or a lymphocytoma
    Late stage Lyme Disease
  18. What antibody is produced in Lyme disease and what is it directed against?
    • IgM
    • Primarily directed against the outer membrane associated protein OspC and flagellin subunits
  19. What causes rubella?
    • Virus, of single-stranded RNA genome
    • Member of the family Togaviridae
  20. What clinical condition:
    Mild, contagious disease characterized by an erythematous maculopapular rash
    Virus spread through droplets through the upper respiratory tract
    Symptoms: 1-5 day prodromal syndrome of malaise, headache, cold symptoms, low grade fever, and swollen lymph glands at the back of the head
  21. What causes Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and how is it transmitted?
    • DNA virus - Member of the herpes virus group
    • Transmitted through saliva
  22. What clinical condition:
    Is a disease of the reticuloendothelial system
    Incubation period is 4-7 weeks
    Onset may be acute or insidious with sore throat, fever, and lymphadenopathy
    Findings: lymphocytosis, with many reactive lymphs, and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
    Infectious mononucleosis (IM)
  23. What clinical condition is:
    A malignant neoplasm of B lymphs
    Found in restricted areas of Africa and New Guinea
    Primarily seen in children
    Burkitt lymphoma
  24. What clinical condition is a nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma found mainly in southern China?
    Nasoharyngeal carcinoma
  25. What clinical condition:
    Symptoms: fever, anorexia, vomiting, fatigue, abdominal pain, and malaise; may become jaundice
    Labs: AST and ALT increased, hyperbilirubinemia, albumin decreased, tea colored urine, pale colored stools
    Hepaptitis A
  26. What is the complete HBV virus called that causes infection?
    Dane particle
  27. What clinical condition:
    Symptoms: develop abruptly and include fever, anorexia, vomiting, fatigue, malaise, jaundice, and arthralgia
    Labs: 1st marker is HBsAg, then HBeAg, then anti-HBc, anti-HBe, anti-HBs
    Hepatitis B virus
  28. What clinical condition:
    Acute infections: symptomatic or mild - nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, malaise
    Chronic infections: cirrhosis and sometimes cancer
    Labs: Anti-HCV
    Hepatitis C
  29. What clinical condition:
    Coinfection occurs when patients acquire HBV and HDV infections simultaneously
    Superinfection occurs when with an established an established HBV patient gets HDV infection
    Chronic infections have poor prognosis with liver damage, inflammation, and cirrhosis
    Labs: HDV-Ag
    Hepatitis D virus
  30. What causes AIDS?
  31. What are the 2 serogroups of HIV?
    • HIV-1: predominant strain, occurs worldwide
    • HIV-2: limited to West Africa
  32. Name the 3 subtypes of HIV-1
    • M (is the major type)
    • N
    • O
  33. What does HIV-1 bind to?
    Binds to the CD4 molecule on T helper cells (primary target), monocytes, macrophages, and other cells
  34. As the HIV disease progresses, what depletes?
    • CD4 and T helper cells
    • CD4 to CD8 ratio is reduced from 2:1
  35. What clinical condition:
    Virus continues to replicate rapidly in the lymphoid tissue - called clinical latency
    Patient develops infections to opportunistic pathogens (Candida, HSV, cytomegalovirus...)
  36. What is the confirmatory serological test for HIV?
    Western blot assay