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Two-person, face-to-face interaction.
Example: Whenever we tell a joke to a friend, ask a professor a question, succumb to a sales pitch, share news with a family member, or express our love to a romantic partner, we are engaging in interpersonal communication.
One-to-many form of communication wherein a single speaker addresses a large audience.
Characteristics of Public Communication
- -Prompted by important event or issue
- -Audience size
- -One time only
- -Speaker is physically distanced from audience
- -Different sphere of communication
Role of audience in Public Communication
Listening and evaluation
A communicator uses information about the audience in constructing three aspects of a speech:
The central idea and structure, Supporting materials, & Style.
6 Social Function of Rhetoric
- 1) Discovering facts
- 2) Testing ideas
- 3) Persuading others
- 4) Shaping knowledge
- 5) Building community
- 6) Distributing power
Occurs when the speaker appears to the audience as trustworthy
Fundamental beliefs held for a long period of time. Some are shared with others and some are highly personal.
Beliefs that people hold about the world and their place in the world
Relatively inconsequential and less resistant beliefs about who is or is not an authority, facts derived from authorities, or matters of personal taste.
Evaluate mental structures that predispose u to act in a certain way
What an individual knows about a topic.
What an individual feels in regard to a topic
What an individual intends to do in regard to a topic.
General and enduring opinions about what should or should not be the case. Convictions about what ought to occur or about what is and is not desirable.
How audiences influenced by speakers
Internalization, credibility, and complience
Occurs when audience members incorporate message content into their belief systems.
Based on the presence of a perceived relationship, either real or imaginary between the source and the receiver.
Elements of a speech outline
Introduction, Thesis, Body, and Conclusion.
Mass Communication / Mass Media
A form of communication through which institutional sources (often referred to as “the media”) address large, diverse audiences whose members are physically separated from one another.
5 Core concepts of media
- 1. All media messages are constructed.
- 2. Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
- 3. Different people experience the same message differently.
- 4. Media have embedded values and points of view.
- 5. Most media messages are organized to gain profit and/or power.
Primary characteristics of media messages
- 1) Institutional sources: profit oriented organization vs. single individual
- 2) Invisible receivers: anonymous people, dispersed in time and location withindividualized interests & backgrounds
- 3) Interposed channels: Communication occursthrough encoded messages on channels that require decoding
Four functions of media
- the gathering and disseminating of information (News/Announcements/Documentaries)
- 2) Correlation - the analysis and evaluation of information (Commentators/Opinion Shows)
- 3) Cultural Transmission - the education and socialization of receivers (Characters in media provide models; good or bad for behaviors in society. TV, Film, etc.)
– the presentation of escapist material that provides enjoyment and gratification. (Magazines, TV, Film, etc.)
Reinforces social ideas and passes on cultural understandings fromone generation to the next
Reinforces socially destructive behavior
- -Dominating influence or authority by a power elite over others that silences opposing views
- -Media messages keep powerless groups from making their ideas known
"Magic bullet" or "hypodermic needle" theory
Receivers are unaware and passive (extremely influential).
Obstinate audience theory
Receivers are viewed as creative consumers who used media according to their own needs.
The belief that TV viewing creates cultivations, i.e. widely-shared, middle-of-the-road viewpoints that support the status quo.
Mean world Hypothesis
The view that the world is a much more dangerous place than it actually is.
Experienced more so by heavy viewers of TV; light viewers are less affected.
Why communication is challenging between people different from one's own culture?
Communication with unknown people is challenging because of cultural differences; creates a sense of loss or tension about how to deal with them.
How are we shaped by our culture since birth?
“From the moment of birth the customs into which [an individual] is born shape his experience and behavior. By the time he can talk,he is a little creature of his culture...”
“…the part of the environment made by humans.”
What does culture include?
- Material objects and possessions invented and acquired by social groups
- Shared customs and values that bind members together
- Sense of commonality created by the above
5 characteristics of intercultural communication
A variety of interconnected activities are found in virtually every culture.
Communication technologies, transportation, commerce have changed our sense of place and interconnectedness.
Not a matter of receiving what already exists; is an interactive process.
The most important social unit is the person or individual.
People believe it is right to put the individual second and the common good of the group first.
Generalized second-hand beliefs that provide conceptual biases from which we make sense of what goes on around us whether they are accurate or fit the circumstances.
Negative social attitude held by members of one group toward members of another group.
“The anxiety that results from losing all of our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse”.
The belief that one’s own culture is superior to all others and the tendency to judge all cultures by one’s own criteria.
The extent to which two cultures differ, affects ease of communication.
The way in which the new comer interacts once he or she is in the host culture.
Becoming a part of the next culture.