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An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feelings, and behaviors persisting over time and situations.
- Emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as forces that determine behavior.
- Believes in early childhood experience.
- Consists of behaviors and emphasizes that differences stem from genetic factors and contingencies in the environment. ( reward and punishment)
- Personalities are bundles of habits by classical and operant conditioning.
- Watson & Skinner.
Social- Cognitive Model
- Personality is influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context.
- Optimistic view of human nature emphasizing self- awareness and the free-choice, self-fulfillment.
- Focus is on potential for healthy personal growth.
- People are innately good
- Aims to pinpoint the major traits such as extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience.
- A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, assesed by self report inventories and peer reports.
- Developed the 1st comprehensive theroy of personality.
- Unconscious mind, psychosexual stages and defense mechanisms.
- A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.
- Say whatever came to their mind-free association.
- Method of freud to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.
- Freud said dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind.
Outside awareness, but accesible
- Submerged, info kept down, doesnt easily come up.
- Unacceptable memories or thoughts
- Basic instincts
- Primitive impulses
- Reservoir of unconscious psychi energy that seeks to satisfy sexual and aggressive drives.
The tendency of the ID to strive for immediate gratification and satisfaction of urges.
- The boss
- The psyche's conscious executive part of personality that mediates among the id, superego and reality.
- Principle decision maker.
The focus is to postpone gratification until the id can find an appopriate outlet in the eternal world
- The part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgemtn and for future aspirations.
Freud's pyschosexual stages
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency,Genital
Egos protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Disagree with Freud
- 1. Personality is not determined by early childhood experiences
- 2. Less emhasis on sexuality
- 3. More optimistic
- Tensions were social in nature, not sexual.
- Child struggles with inferiority complex.
- Feelings of inferiority that can lead to overcompensation
- Mental illness are compensation for inferiority.
- Dealt with social relationships
- How we deal with society
- 1. more toward other people
- 2.more against other people
- 3. more away from other people
- Collective unconscious
- Common reservoir of images derived from our past.
A personality test
- Behaviorists believe personality is controlled by genetic factors and contingencies in environment.
- Personality does not cause behavior
- Personality IS behavior
- Personality is the result of an interaction between a persons traits and social context
Learning can occur by watching others
The extent to which people percieve control over their environment.
External Locus of Control
Perception that chance or outside forces beyond ones personal control determines fate.
Internal Locus of control
Refers to perception that we control our own fate.
Locus of Control
Extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control
The hopelessness and passive resignation a person learns when he/she is unable to avoid aversive events.
Developed his theory based on studying and observing healthy people rather than troubled souls
Transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world.
The drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent
Carl Rogers- Personalites consist of..
- 1. Organism
- 2. Self
- 3. Conditions of worth.
- Ones thought and feelings about oneself
- Set of perceptions and beliefs of who we are.
Unconditional Positive reward
- An attitude of total acceptance toward another despite failings
- God's unconditional love and acceptance through Grace.
- Scientific study of optimal human functioning
- Aims to discover and promote conditions that enable indivdual and community to thrive.
- 1. Positive subjective well-being
- 2.Positive Character
- 3. Positive Social groups
Characteristiv pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Statistical technique that analyzes the correlations amoung responses on personality interventies.
Assuming that peopl ehave attention focused on you when they actually may not be noticing you.
- Tendency to give casual explanations for someones behavior.
- Crediting either the situation or the persons disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to OVERESTIMATE the impact of personal disposition( dispositional attribution) and UNDERESTIMATE the impact of the situations ( situational attribution) in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error.
- Beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people and events.
- They affect our actions
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Zimbardo- what did he do/work with
Assisgned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role-appropriate attitudes.
When our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes, we experience tension
Refers to adjusting our behavior or thinking to fit in or coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid rejection
Informational Social Influence
The group may provide valuable info, but stubborn people will never listen
- Designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience
- Social Psychology
Refers to improved performance on task in the presence of others
The tendency of an individual in a groupd to exert less effort
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
The tendency of group discussions to strengthen dominat attitudes or prevailing inclinations held by individual group members.
- A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives.
- Group polatization causes this to happen
- Dealt with political affairs
A prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a groupd and its members
Components of Predjudice
- 2. Negative Emotions
- 3. Predisposition to act (to discriminate)
Unjustified negative behavior applied to members of a selected group.
A generalized belief (or expectation) about a group, applied to every member of a group.
Why does prejudice arise?
- 1. Social Inequalites
- 2. Social Divisions
- 3. Emotional Scapegoating
The observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame.
Just World Fallacy
The tendency of people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
- Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destory another person.
- Increases in frequency and intesity after it is reinforced.
Three biological influences on agressive behavior..
- 1.Genetic factors ( heredity)
- 2.Neural factors(brain activity)
- 3. Biochemistry ( homrones and alchohol)
Levels of aggression are influenced by:
- 1. Aversive condions and feeling frustrated
- 2. Getting reinforced for aggressive behavior
- 3. Having aggression modeled at home or in the media
- 4. Adopting social scripts for aggression from culture and the media.
An unselfish regard for the welfare of other people.
IS percieved as an incompatibilty of actions, goals, or ideas.