Psych test #4

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Psych test #4
2013-04-08 13:48:56

chp 13 & 14
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  1. Personality
    An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feelings, and behaviors persisting over time and situations.
  2. Psychoanalytic
    • Emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as forces that determine behavior.
    • Believes in early childhood experience.
    • Freud
  3. Behavioral
    • Consists of behaviors and emphasizes that differences stem from genetic factors and contingencies in the environment. ( reward and punishment)
    • Personalities are bundles of habits by classical and operant conditioning.
    • Watson & Skinner.
  4. Social- Cognitive Model
    • Personality is influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context.
    • Vygotsky
  5. Humanistic Model
    • Optimistic view of human nature emphasizing self- awareness and the free-choice, self-fulfillment.
    • Focus is on potential for healthy personal growth.
    • People are innately good
  6. Trait Model
    • Aims to pinpoint the major traits such as extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience.
    • A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, assesed by self report inventories and peer reports.
  7. Sigmund Freud
    • Developed the 1st comprehensive theroy of personality.
    • Unconscious mind, psychosexual stages and defense mechanisms.
  8. Unconscious
    • A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.
    • Say whatever came to their mind-free association.
  9. Dream Analysis
    • Method of freud to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.
    • Freud said dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind.
  10. Preconscious
    Outside awareness, but accesible
  11. Unconscious
    • Submerged, info kept down, doesnt easily come up.
    • Unacceptable memories or thoughts
  12. ID
    • Basic instincts
    • Primitive impulses
    • Reservoir of unconscious psychi energy that seeks to satisfy sexual and aggressive drives.
  13. Pleasure Principle
    The tendency of the ID to strive for immediate gratification and satisfaction of urges.
  14. Ego
    • The boss
    • The psyche's conscious executive part of personality that mediates among the id, superego and reality.
    • Principle decision maker.
  15. Reality Principle
    The focus is to postpone gratification until the id can find an appopriate outlet in the eternal world
  16. Superego
    • Conscience
    • The part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgemtn and for future aspirations.
  17. Freud's pyschosexual stages
    Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency,Genital
  18. Defense Mechanisms
    Egos protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
  19. Disagree with Freud
    • 1. Personality is not determined by early childhood experiences
    • 2. Less emhasis on sexuality
    • 3. More optimistic
  20. Alfred Alder
    • Tensions were social in nature, not sexual.
    • Child struggles with inferiority complex.
  21. Inferiority Complex
    • Feelings of inferiority that can lead to overcompensation
    • Mental illness are compensation for inferiority.
  22. Karen Horney
    • Dealt with social relationships
    • How we deal with society
    • 1. more toward other people
    • 2.more against other people
    • 3. more away from other people
  23. Carl Jung
    • Collective unconscious
    • Common reservoir of images derived from our past.
  24. Projective Test
    A personality test
  25. Personality statements
    • Behaviorists believe personality is controlled by genetic factors and contingencies in environment.
    • Personality does not cause behavior
    • Personality IS behavior
    • Personality is the result of an interaction between a persons traits and social context
  26. Observational learning
    Learning can occur by watching others
  27. Personal control
    The extent to which people percieve control over their environment.
  28. External Locus of Control
    Perception that chance or outside forces beyond ones personal control determines fate.
  29. Internal Locus of control
    Refers to perception that we control our own fate.
  30. Locus of Control
    Extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control
  31. Learned helplessness
    The hopelessness and passive resignation a person learns when he/she is unable to avoid aversive events.
  32. Abraham Maslow
    Developed his theory based on studying and observing healthy people rather than troubled souls
  33. Peak Experiences
    Transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world.
  34. Self Actualization
    The drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent
  35. Carl Rogers- Personalites consist of..
    • 1. Organism
    • 2. Self
    • 3. Conditions of worth.
  36. Self Concept
    • Ones thought and feelings about oneself
    • Set of perceptions and beliefs of who we are.
  37. Unconditional Positive reward
    • An attitude of total acceptance toward another despite failings
    • God's unconditional love and acceptance through Grace.
  38. Positive Psychology
    • Scientific study of optimal human functioning
    • Aims to discover and promote conditions that enable indivdual and community to thrive.
    • 1. Positive subjective well-being
    • 2.Positive Character
    • 3. Positive Social groups
  39. Trait
    Characteristiv pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
  40. Factor Analysis
    Statistical technique that analyzes the correlations amoung responses on personality interventies.
  41. Spotlight Effect
    Assuming that peopl ehave attention focused on you when they actually may not be noticing you.
  42. Attribution Theory
    • Tendency to give casual explanations for someones behavior.
    • Crediting either the situation or the persons disposition.
  43. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to OVERESTIMATE the impact of personal disposition( dispositional attribution) and UNDERESTIMATE the impact of the situations ( situational attribution) in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error.
  44. Attitudes
    • Beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people and events.
    • They affect our actions
  45. Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
    The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
  46. Zimbardo- what did he do/work with
    Assisgned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role-appropriate attitudes.
  47. Cognitive Dissonance
    When our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes, we experience tension
  48. Conformity
    Refers to adjusting our behavior or thinking to fit in or coincide with a group standard
  49. Normative Social Influence
    Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid rejection
  50. Informational Social Influence
    The group may provide valuable info, but stubborn people will never listen
  51. Stanley Milgram
    • Designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience
    • Social Psychology
  52. Social Facilitation
    Refers to improved performance on task in the presence of others
  53. Social Loafing
    The tendency of an individual in a groupd to exert less effort
  54. Deindividuation
    The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
  55. Group Polarization
    The tendency of group discussions to strengthen dominat attitudes or prevailing inclinations held by individual group members.
  56. Groupthink
    • A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives.
    • Group polatization causes this to happen
    • Dealt with political affairs
  57. Prejudgment
    A prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a groupd and its members
  58. Components of Predjudice
    • 1.Beliefs
    • 2. Negative Emotions
    • 3. Predisposition to act (to discriminate)
  59. Discrimination
    Unjustified negative behavior applied to members of a selected group.
  60. Stereotype
    A generalized belief (or expectation) about a group, applied to every member of a group.
  61. Why does prejudice arise?
    • 1. Social Inequalites
    • 2. Social Divisions
    • 3. Emotional Scapegoating
  62. Scapegoat Theory
    The observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame.
  63. Just World Fallacy
    The tendency of people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
  64. Agression
    • Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destory another person.
    • Increases in frequency and intesity after it is reinforced.
  65. Three biological influences on agressive behavior..
    • 1.Genetic factors ( heredity)
    • 2.Neural factors(brain activity)
    • 3. Biochemistry ( homrones and alchohol)
  66. Levels of aggression are influenced by:
    • 1. Aversive condions and feeling frustrated
    • 2. Getting reinforced for aggressive behavior
    • 3. Having aggression modeled at home or in the media
    • 4. Adopting social scripts for aggression from culture and the media.
  67. Altruism
    An unselfish regard for the welfare of other people.
  68. Conflict
    IS percieved as an incompatibilty of actions, goals, or ideas.