PTG 105-Exam 3- Lecture 17-4

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PTG 105-Exam 3- Lecture 17-4
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2013-04-08 00:25:57
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PTG 105 Exam Lecture 17
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PTG 105-Exam 3- Lecture 17-4
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  1. How does Choriocarcinoma usually spread?
    Via Hematogenous spread
  2. How many cell types does Choriocarcinoma have?
    Two cell types
  3. What is a biphasic tumor?
    A tumor having 2 cell types
  4. A tumor having 2 cell types is termed what?
    Bi-phasic
  5. What are the two cell types of Choriocarcinoma?
    • Cytotrophoblasts
    • Syncytiotrophoblasts
  6. Cytotrophoblasts and Syncytitrophoblasts are cell types of what type of tumor?
    Choriocarcinoma
  7. What is the tumor marker for Choriocarcinoma?
    hCG
  8. hCG is a tumor marker for what type of tumor?
    Choriocarcinoma
  9. What tumor may first present with metastases?
    Choriocarcinoma
  10. What re four major characteristics of choriocarcinoma?
    • Aggressive
    • Bi-phasic
    • May present initially with metastases
    • hCG tumor marker
  11. What percent of germ cell tumors does Teratoma make up?
    5%
  12. How many germ layers do Teratoma tumors derive from?
    All three
  13. What re the three germ layer?
    • Ectoderm
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
  14. What tumor derives from all three germ layers?
    Teratoma
  15. What type of tumor would you suspect if it contained cells from cartilage, epithelia, salivary glands and neural tissue?
    Teratoma
  16. Mixed type GCTs make up what percentage of all GCTs?
    50%
  17. What are the three type of prostate problems discussed in class?
    • Prostatitis
    • Benign Hypertrophy
    • Cancer
  18. Describe Prostatitis:
    Inflammation of the prostate
  19. What is inflammation of the prostate called?
    Prostatitis
  20. What is Prostatitis usually associated with?
    Urinary tract infection
  21. A urinary tract infection predisposes patients to what prostate issue?
    Prostatitis
  22. What bacteria usually cause Prostatitis?
    • E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can all cause what disease?
    • Urinary tract infections that cause prostatitis
  23. How does Prostatitis manifest itself (6)?
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Dysuria
    • Urinary frequency
    • Urinary urgency
    • Perineal pain
  24. A patient presenting with perennial pain, dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, fever and chills most likely has what disease?
    Prostatitis
  25. Histologically what would you expect to see in a patient with Prostatitis?
    Numersou PMNs in and around the acini/glands
  26. Histologically, if you saw numerous PMNs in and around the acini/glands what disease would you suspect?
    Prostatitis
  27. What is the treatment for prostatitis?
    Antibiotics
  28. Acute prostatitis can be detected by what means?
    Urine examination for neutrophils and bacteria
  29. A urine examination that reveals neutrophils and bacteria indicates what diseae?
    Acute Prostatitis
  30. What is another name for Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate?
    Benign prostatic hypertrophy
  31. What is another term for benign prostatic hypertrophy?
    Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate
  32. Describe the general characteristics of benign prostatic hypertrophy?
    • Hyperplasia involves central zone
    • Cancer involves the peripheral zone
  33. What cancer involves the central zone and exhibits hyperplasia in the central zone?
    Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate (Benign prostatic hypertrophy)
  34. How many men by the age of 80 have developed Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate?
    90%
  35. 90% of all men by the age of 80 have what prostatic issue?
    Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate
  36. In Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate what parts of the prostate proliferate?
    The sromal and epithelial cells
  37. What hormones play a role in Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate?
    Androgen and Estrogen
  38. How does Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate manifest?
    • Lower urinary tract obstruction
    • Difficulty in urination
  39. What are complications of Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate?
    • Obstruction of the lower urinary tract (difficulty urinating)
    • Bladder infections
  40. How is Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate treated?
    • Anti-androgens
    • 5alpha-reductase inhibitor
    • TURP (transurethral resection)
  41. Anti-androgens, 5alpha-reductase, TURP (transurethral resection) are all used to treat what disease?
    Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate
  42. What is the most common cancer in men?
    Prostatic carcinoma
  43. What is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in men?
    Prostatic carcinoma
  44. What cancer has a high frequency of latent cancer?
    Prostatic cancer
  45. What group of men are most likely to develop prostatic cancer?
    Men over the age of 80 (50%)
  46. What does PSA stand for?
    Prostatic specific antigen
  47. What is prostatic specific antigen?
    Tumor marker for the prostate

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