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What is the bodys primary focus in the first decade for a girl?
primary focus on its own growth and development
What is the bodys primary focus after mentruation begins?
- body begins to offer ova for reproduction
- *releases egg every month ready to fertilize
What is fertilization?
union of egg spermatozoon to zygote
healthful diet before conception- 2 things to avoid in your diet
- -avoid teratogens
- *alcohol and drugs
- -avoid other substances
- *caffeine, medications, herbs, suppls.
healthful diet before conception- What range should the BMI be in?
19.8 and 26.0 kg
2 nutrition related disorder during pregnancy.
When do neural tube defects develop?
first few weeks
How long does a full term pregnancy last?
38 to 42 weeks
When is first trimester?
conception to week 13
When is the second trimester?
week 14 to week 27
when is the third trimester?
week 28 to week 40
When is the embryonic stage?
day 15 to week 8
After what week is the developing baby called a fetus?
after week 8
What happens in the first trimester? (2)
-zygote travels through fallopian tube and implants in wall of uterus
-development of organs, limb buds, facial features, and placenta
What trimester are embryos extremely vulnerable to teratogens?
during the first trimester
Placenta development and function-Do maternal and fetus blood ever intemingle? Why or why not?
no, the mothers blood stays in circulatory system while the fetus blood never leaves the fetal vessels
Placenta development and function- Where does the exchange of materials take place between the mother and fetus?
within the sponge-like endometrium.
What three things does a placenta mimic the functions of that the fetus will have after birth?
What three functions does the placenta provide the fetus with? (3)
What does placenta use for fuel?
glucose, it provides glucose to the fetus
Placenta development and function-What does the increase of blood flow influence?
the rate of oxygen and nutrient delivery and waste exchange
Placenta development and function- water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and electrolytes cross the placenta via..
Placenta development and function- Glucose, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and other nutrients cross the placenta by..
2 cahracteristics of 2nd trimeester
-continued development of organ systems
-growth from approximately 3 inches to over one foot long by the end of the second trimester
What trimester does the fetus gain 3 quarters of its weight?
characterisitcs of thrid trimester (3)
-time for considerable growth
-brain growth is also extensive
-lungs become fully mature
***well balanced diet is essential
What does the fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease risk state?
states that exposure to adverse nutritional and other conditions during critical periods of growth can permanently affect body structures and functions
***may predispose people to having CVD, among other problems
What are preterm babies?
babies that were born before 38 weeks and may be low birth weight babies
**nutrition plays a role in this condition
What does small for gestational age indicate?
babies born at term but weigh less than would be expected for their gestational age
***nutrition plays a role in this condition
What is low birth weight?
any baby born weighing less than 5.5 pounds
***increased risks of infections, learning disabilities, impaired physical development, and death in first year
An undernourished mother is more likely to...
give birth to a low birth weight baby
Women who do not gain enough weight during pregnancy are at risk of..
having a low birth weight baby
the outcome of women who do not gain enough weight during pregnancy (3)
-increases chance of premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation
-apgar scores are often low
why should women diet during pregnancy?
may deprive the fetus of critical nutrients
risks of Children born from obese women (6)
-low apgar scores
-difficulty regulating blood sugar after delivery
-perinatal mortality due to greater difficulty delivering
How much weight gain should normal BMI gain during pregnancy?
How much weight should underweight women gain during preganancy?
How much weight should overweight women gain during pregnancy?
How much should obese women gain during pregnancy?
no more than 15
What is suggested weight gained for having a single baby?
What is suggested weight gained for having twins?
What is suggested weight gained for having triplets?
at least 45 pounds
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for breast size?
2 pounds increase
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for mother fluid volume?
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for placenta?
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for increase in blood supply to the placenta?
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for amniotic fluid?
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for infant at birth?
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for increase in size of uterus and supporting muscles?
(WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY) What is the typical weigh gain during pregnancy for mothers necessary fat stores?
3 things pregnant women should pay attention to?
How many additional calories may be required to consume in second and thrid trimester?
300-450 kcal a day
What should be the protein intake for pregnant moms?
1.1 grams per day per kg body weight
***an additional 25 grams per day of protein
At least how many grams of carbs should be consumed during pregnancy? why?
175 g per day because glucose is the preferred food source of a fetus
Is fat intake going to change during pregnancy?
no, it should stay about the same
Most important type of fat to consume during pregnant? (2)
- rich sources of docosahexaenoic acid
-omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acid
10 micros that are most critical during pregnancy
Why is folate important during pregnancy? (2)
-required for cell division
-critical in the first 28 days for development of the neural tube which become the brain and spinal cord
Why is vitamin b12 important during pregnancy?
regenerates the active form of folate
Why is vitamin C important during pregnancy?
-production of collagen (connective tissue)
What happens if there is a deficiency in vitamin C consumption during pregnancy?
in elevated risk for preterm births and preeclampsia
Is beta carotene associated with brith defects during pregnancy?
Is supplementation of vitamin A recommended during pregnancy?
no, toxicity risk
What can excess of vitamin A cause during pregnancy?
abnormalities in fetal kidneys and nervous system
BY how much should vitamin A be increased during pregnancy?
What can happen from excessive intake of vitamin D during pregnancy?
causes developmental disabilities in newborns
When is supplementation advised for vitamin D during pregnancy?
if exposure to sunlight or milk consumption is low
Does the AI increase for vitamin D during pregnancy?
Efficiency of calcium absoprtion during pregnancy
calcium absorption is more efficient during pregnancy
By how much percent is teh need for iron increased during pregnancy? why?
by 50 percent because the need for red blood cells increases.
what can happen if the mother has iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy? (3)
-low birht weight
-fetal growth restriction
When does the fetal need during pregnancy for iron increased?
Is iron deficiency anemia common during pregnancy?
Why is zinc important during pregnancy?
critical for making proteins, DNA, RNA
When pregnant How much percent increase does zinc require?
38 percent increase
when pregnant Do sodium needs increase?
no it stays the same
When pregnant does the need for iodine increase?
***can be obtained from iodized salt