PTG 105-Exam 3- Lecture 16-1

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PTG 105-Exam 3- Lecture 16-1
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2013-04-08 00:22:31
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PTG 105 Exam Lecture 16
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PTG 105-Exam 3- Lecture 16-1
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  1. What are the two main areas of the liver?
    The lobules and portal area
  2. How hepatocytes arranged?
    in cords or strings with sinusoids (large capillaries) between the plates
  3. What are sinusoids?
    Large capillaries
  4. What is another name for alarge capillary?
    Sinusoid
  5. Bile canaliculi are found where?
    Between the hepatocytes
  6. What do bile canalaculi do?
    Carry bile to the portal area, where it is dumped into the bile ducts
  7. Give a basic structural and functional overview of the histology of the liver:
    The liver is composed of a lobules and a portal area. Hepatocytes are arranged in strings or cords with sinusoids between plates. Bile canalaculi are positioned between the hepatocytes, where they collect bile and carry it to the portal area, where the bile is dumped into bile ducts.
  8. What are the five main functions of the liver?
    • Production of Bile Salts
    • Removal of Bilirubin
    • Detoxification of drugs and poisons
    • Metabolism of Nitrogenous substances
    • Production of Serum proteins
  9. What is the purpose of Bile Salts?
    Aids fat absorption in the intestines
  10. What does the liver do with the Bilirubin it removes?
    Conjugates with glucuronide and excretes it into the Bile
  11. What is Bilirubin?
    A breakdown product of Hemoglobin
  12. What breakdown product of hemoglobin is removed by the liver, conjugated with glucuronide, and excreted into the Bile?
    Bilirubin
  13. Break down of dead cells produces what substance that the liver then metabolizes?
    Nitrogenous substances
  14. Where do nitrogenous substances come from?
    Breakdown of dead cells
  15. Give two examples of serum proteins that the liver produces:
    albumin and prothrombin
  16. What is the significance of albumin and prothrobin to the liver?
    They are both produced in the liver
  17. What Vitamin is required for the liver to produce prothrombin?
    Vitamin K
  18. Vitamin K is needed to produce what?
    Prothrombin
  19. Low Prothrombin levels indicate what?
    Vitamin K deficiency or severe liver disease
  20. What indicates severe liver disease or low Vit. K deficiency?
    Low Prothrombin levels
  21. What is the orientation of the pancreas to the abdomen?
    Horizontal in the mid-abdomen
  22. Describe the pancreas:
    glandular organ lying horizontal in teh mid-abdomen
  23. What general types of glandular cells are in the pancreas?
    Exocrine and Endocrine
  24. The exocrine glands of the pancreas produce what general product?
    Digestive enzymes
  25. What part of the pancreas produces digestive enzymes?
    The exocrine portion
  26. Where are pancreatic secretions delivered to?
    The duodenum
  27. What route do pancreatic secretions take to get from the pancreas to the duodenum?
    Via the pancreatic duct
  28. What digestive enzymes are produces in teh exocrine cells of teh pancreas?
    Lipases, Amylases and Tripsins
  29. Where are amylases, tripsins and lipases produced?
    In the exocrine cells of the pancreas
  30. What happens if the entire pancreas is removed?
    Diabetes
  31. What re the four signs and symptoms of liver disease?
    • Jaundice
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Pain
    • Nausea and Vomiting
  32. What disease does Hepatomegaly, jaundice, nausea and vomiting and right upper quadrant pain
    • point to?
    • Liver disease
  33. Why does liver disease cause jaundice?
    An increase in Bilirubin in the blood causes eyes and skin to discolor
  34. What kind of pain do people with liver disease develop?
    Right upper quadrant pain
  35. What disease other than liver disease cuases painin teh right upper quadrant?
    Inflammation of the gall bladder (acute cholecystitis) and Gallstones
  36. What is another name for Gall stones?
    Acute cholecystitis
  37. What is acute Cholecystitis?
    Inflammation of the gall bladder
  38. Gallstones and Acute cholecystitis cause what type of pain?
    Right upper quadrant pain
  39. Name the five liver function tests:
    • Serum Bilirubin
    • Total protein, serum albumin
    • Aspartate/Alanin amino transferase
    • Alkaline phosphatase
    • Prothrombin time
  40. Total protein (serum albumin), Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate/Alanine aminotransferase, Prothrombin time and serum bilirubin are all tests for what?
    Liver function
  41. What tests are there for the pancreas and gallbladder?
    • Serum amylase and lipase, x-ray and ultrasound
    • If a patient has cirrhosis or severe liver disease what changes in teh serum would you expect?
    • Low serum albumin
  42. What is elevated during liver inflammation and necrosis?
    Aspartate/Alanine aminotransferase
  43. Aspartate/Alanine aminotransferase is elevated under what conditions?
    Liver inflammation and necrosis
  44. Alkaline phosphatase has high levels during what condition?
    Bile duct obstruction
  45. Bile duct obstruction causes what to rise?
    Alkaline phosphatase
  46. Prothrombin time reflect on what levels?
    Prothrombin levels

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