bio ashley 2ed to last test

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bio ashley 2ed to last test
2013-04-08 14:09:20
Bio Ashley

Bio test 5
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  1. Hereditary Blue prints
    the Genes you inhearit from your parents, that determins what you will look like and your genetic makeup that is uneaquec for each person
  2. genetic code
    • the set of rules that convert a nucleotide sequence in RNA to an amino acid sequence. 61 of the 64 triplets code for amino acids. The genetic code is nearly universal, shared by organisms from the simplest bacteria to the most complex plantsand animals
    • it uses A,T or U, G, C
  3. Nucleotide Structure
    • Nitrogenous base, Sugar, Phosphate group
    • the bases are attached by double or triple hydrogen bonds
    • sugars and phosphates have strong bonds
  4. double helix
    you have a strong 2 stranded spril that looks like a stair case
  5. DNA replication
    • you got all the new DNA you would ever get when you where conceived with the exception of mutations
    • This is when a cell or somtimes a whole organisum is made by duplicating DNA, For this to happen there must be a means of duplicating DNA
    • DNA happens in one of two ways Eather by ubble duplication where the DNA bubbles out and a new strand of DNA is fromed on each side of the bubble and it continues to sepperate untell all the bubble are joined, or by unzipping and forming a new strand of DNA
  6. DNA polymerases
    The enzymes that make the covalentbonds between the nucleotides of a new DNA strand
  7. transcription
    • one of the two ways of moveing DNA to RNA
    • the transfer of genetic information fromDNA into an RNA molecule
    • copying of DNA code
  8. translation
    • the secound of the Two ways of transphering the Genetic code
    • the transfer of the information from RNA into a protein.
    • Accurs between RNA and protien at ribosomes
  9. Protien Sythisis
    is were RNA is changed to mRNA by the takeing out of un needed information
  10. DNA and RNA size structure and Function
    • Both DNA and RNA structure: are nucleic acids, which consist of long chains (polymers) of chemical units (monomers)called nucleotides. only one of many possible arrangements of the four different types of nucleotides(abbreviated A, C, T (or U for RNA), and G) that make up DNA. Nucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate ofthe next. This results in a sugar-phosphate backbone,a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate.The nitrogenous bases are arranged like ribs that project from this backbone.The phosphate group, with a phosphorus atom (P) at its center, is the source of the acid in nucleic acid.The sugar is called deoxyribose because, compared with the sugar ribose,it is missing an oxygen atom. The full name for DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid, RNA is just Ribose with nucleic referring to DNA'slocation in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. The nitrogenous base (thymine, in our example) has a ring of nitrogenand carbon atoms with various chemical groups attached. In contrast to the acidic phosphate group, nitrogenousbases are basic; hence their name.
    • Size: DNA is double helix and RNA is a single strand shorter than DNA
    • Function: DNA is to carry all Genetic info for transpering unto RNA and to mannige all the workings of the Nucleous. RNA is for transphering of Genetic information from the DNA out of the Nucleous to the protiens and help to make the Amino acid chain
  11. covalent and hydrogen bonds
    • covalent: join the Base Sugar and phosphate groupe 
    • hydrogen: bonds join the bases together
  12. DNA bases
    • Thymine (T)and cytosine (C) are single-ring structures. Adenine (A) and guanine (G)
    • A w T, C w G
  13. RNA bases
    • cytosine (C) are single-ring structures. Adenine (A) and guanine (G), and Uricil (U)
    • A w U and C w G
  14. code
    • sequencing DNA and finding out what is there
    • the set of rules that convert a nucleotide sequence in RNAto an amino acid sequence
  15. codon
    • 3 bases in a row that code for Amino acids
    • 64 differant codons
    • sometimes multiple codons go for amino acids
    • there are some codons that
  16. ati-codon
    • tRNA
    • it gets pushed to the outside of the tRNA when its folded back on itself tRNA carries and amino acid and goes moves to where it needs to go
    • At one end of the folded molecule is aspecial triplet of bases called an
  17. Introns
    • stay inside the nucleous
    • include such internal noncoding regions
  18. exons
    • go outside the nucleous
    • the parts of a genethat are expressed
  19. mRNA
    • Messinger RNA
    • Brings the code to the ribosome for it to make protien
    • The first important ingredient required for translation is the mRNA produced by transcription
  20. rRNA
    • Ribosomal RNA
    • Each subunit is made up of proteinsand a considerable amount
    • Attaches to mRNA and attracts tRNA
  21. tRNA
    • transfer RNA
    • Attaches to an Amino acid and takes it to where it needs to go
    • Translation of any language into another language requires an interpreter, someone or something that canrecognize the words of one language and convert them to the other.To convert the three-letter words(codons) of nucleic acids to the amino acid words of proteins, a cell uses a molecular interpreter,
  22. mutations
    • Alertation of DNA
    • Point: 1 letter is changed in the DNA sequence
    • Invershions: breacks apart DNA when DNA gets put back together it could be all wrong.
    • Insertions: where 1 base is throughn in 
    • Deletion: where a base is taken out
  23. Genetic Engineering
    the direct manipulation of genes forpractical purposes.
  24. Cloneing
    • where you take one set of genes from one organizum and you make another
    • (genetic copy) of the donor
  25. cell differation
    • is all about hwo cells spechialize
    • that is, they must become specialized in structure and function
  26. cytokinesis
    • cell movement/devideing cell devishion cell pinches together and separates in animal cells
    • a cells wall forms and separates one side from anther in plant cells
    • the divishion of the cytoplasm into two cells usually begins during telophase overlapping the end of mitosis
    • produces two identical daughter cells. the cytoplasm is divideing in two
  27. karyokinesis
    • how the genetic info gets sorted out so the cells have enof genes
    • mitosis: differant for each organisum for some reproduction for others cells divishion for some it is where organisums regenerate = asexual reproduction.
    • meiosis: another type of nuclear divishion produces daughter cells that are differant sexual reproduction for producing gametes.
    • how the chromosomes are split up in the new cells that are froming
  28. Mitosis
    • is the splitting of cells for growth, healing (cell replacement), in some organisums reproduction, and some can grow whole limbs back
    • it is asexual reproduction
  29. meiosis
    • sexual reproduction or Gametes
    • testies and overies are the only place this happens
    • it will produce 1/2 of the cells of the parents
  30. Cell cycle
    • Interphase: the cell is in this 90 percent of the time. G1: gap 1 where the cell is doing its normal job. S: DNA sythisis accurs here. G2: gap 2 the cell is again doing normal work
    • M: Mitosis of Meiosis
  31. Stages of Mitosis
    • Prophase: strat phase: Nuclear envilope breackes down centreals move apart and from spindle fibers chromosomes attach to spindle fibers and move to the center of the cell
    • Metophase:Middle chromosomes are in the middle ready to be pulled apart by the spindle fibers
    • Anaphase:where  daughter chromatids get pulled appart to separets sides of the cell
    • Telophase:end phase where cytokenesis accurs
    • Interphase: where the cell is doing normal cell work and duplicating DNA
  32. Results of Mitosis
    Two daughter cells that are exactly alike if everything whent right
  33. Stages if meiosis
    the stages are pritty much the same as Mitosis except the cells chromosomes can do cross over. also the cells devide one more time than Mitosis causeing 4 cells with half the number of chromosomes
  34. events of meiosis causeing genetic diversity
    • Crossing over: could nver happen or could happen many times this is the exchange of corrisponding segments between non sister chromotids.
    • Recombination: the production of gene combinations differant from those carried by the parental chromosomes
    • Independent assortment:
    • Fertilization event: accers because a man and a woman with differant genes do sexual reproduction
  35. nondisjunction
    • this happens when chromotis fail to separate correctly it can happen in one of two places in Meisos 1 or miosis 2 when it happens in miosis 1 all the gamets will be abnormal, when it happens in miosis 2 only half of the gametes will be abnormal
    • this can cause genetic diseases like down syndrome
  36. Genes Vs Alleles
    • gene: all DNA you need to code for this
    • alleles: alternative vershion of alleles
  37. modes of inheritance
    • Dominate Vs Ressesive: a dominate allele only requires one of the alleles to make it show in a person however a ressesive needs two alleles to make it show in the person
    • Incompleate dominance/ codominance: this is where there are two dominate alleles that abide together not affecting each other
    • Multiple allels: there can be more than 2 alleles that code for one thing like in blood type there there is A and B and o
    • delayed expreshion: there are some alleles that dont affect you untell latter in life like Male pattern baldness
    • sex-influenced: ales can not be carreirs but femails can
    • Sex- linked: typicaly liked to the x chromosome but there are some that are linked to the y chromosome but we dont deal with them because only the guys will have them and not the girls
    • Epistasis
    • Polygenetic: he additive affects of two or more genes
  38. phenotype
    how the genes are expressed
  39. genotype
    • Homozygus Dominate: AA as far as albinisum
    • hererozygus: Aa
    • homozygus recessive: aa
    • the genes that a person has inhearited
  40. locus
    • Location
    • the spicific location of a gene accross a chromosome
  41. Useing punnett square
    • Margens: what genes can me passed on by the parents
    • Cells: possibilitys of the types of kids they can have
  42. genetic control of metabolic reactions
    what genes you get determins what you will look like and be like with you metabolic reactions (sickel cell)
  43. Metabolic block disorders
    • rssessive all
    • Phenylkentonuria: is the inability to produce the enzyme that converts phenylalenine to tyrosine causes phenylpyruvic acid, results in delayed mental development requires speacheal diet.
    • Albinism: inability to produce pink skin pigment, or to produce the enzyme wich converts tyrosine
    • alkaptonuria: this is where pee turns dark when exposed to oxygen, inability to produce enzyme that metabilizeses homogentistic acid
    • galactosemia: inability to produce enzymes which convays galactose to gluecose child poisoned by mothers milk; liver inlargement, characters, if not diagnoesed blindness, mental retardation eventual death teatment soy bean products
    • Tay sacs disease: inability to produce enzymes, GM2 ganglioside accumulates; destruction of neurons, no cure ; death befor 5 years, ashkenazi jews this is typical for them 1/1800 berths, blood test detect carriers
  44. Delayed expression
    • this is where genes are not expressed untel latter in life
    • male pattern baldness
    • Huntingtons chorea: a mental degeneration that starts around 40 and a person has 10 years to live afer this
  45. Sex linked
    typicaly liked to the x chromosome: olor blindness, hemophilia
  46. multiple Alleles
    this is seen in blood type where there is more than 3 types of blood A, B, o
  47. Blood Typeing
    • A and B are dominate and o is recessive
    • RH+ is dominate Rh- recessive
  48. Anti-body and anti-gens reactions
    you body produces anti-bodys to sertin blood types that it is not so that when a unfamiloear blood type enters the blod stream the blood will clump together
  49. Interpreting resalts for blood type
    where there is clumping of the blood is your blood type
  50. clotting / agglutination
    • Clotting: is what happens when you get an open wound
    • Agglutination: is where you blood clumps together when combined with a opposite blood type
  51. genetic crosses
    • Monohybird: the parents of the differ in only on caracteristic
    • Dihybirde: the parents differ in more than 1 caracteristic