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The heart is located between the lungs in the area known as the ____
what is the innermost layer of the heart wall called?
the apex off the heart is
inferior to the rest of the heart.
what is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart?
Blood vessels that drain into the right atrium
Inferior venacava, superior venacava, coronary sinus.
Where does the great cardiac vein and small cardiac vein take blood?
coronary sinus to right atrium.
bicuspid valve is located
between left atrium and left ventricle
the structure between the atrioventricular valve and the papillary muscles
tricuspid valve =
right atrioventricular valve.
Common carotid artery, from ____ and____ to ___ and ____
aortic arch to left internal, external carotid. brachiocephalic trunk to right internal, external carotid
aortic arch to right subclavian, right common carotid
three vessels exit aortic arch
carotid (left), subclavian (left), brachiocephalic (right)
Subclavian to digital ... (7 vessels)
- 1. subclavian
- 2. axillary
- 3. brachial
- 4, 5. radial, ulnar
- 6. superficial palmer arch
- 7. digital
capsule that holds the heart
- fibrous pericardium (outer)
- serious pericardium (inner)
is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid, and a thin epithelial layer. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement.
serious pericardium consists of
- Parietal pericardium (adheres to inside of fibrous pericardium)
- Visceral pericardium (epicardium) (adheres to surface of heart)
- filled with pericardial fluid
- separates serious membranes (parietal and visceral layers)
base vs. apex of heart
- base = top
- apex = bottom left (point of left ventrical)
pericardium is attached to
the mediastinum lies between
the right and left pleura
Vein vs artery
- veins carry blood toward heart
- arterys carry blood away from heart
three tissue layers
- epicardium (visceral pericardium) Serous membrane;smooth outer surface of heart- made up of simple squamous epithelium (superficial) loose connective and adipose tissue (deep)
- Myocardium: Middle layer
- composed of cardiac muscle cell
- and responsibility for heart
- endocardium: Smooth innersurface of heart chambers
two types of muscles of the inner heart wall
- Pectinate muscles: muscular ridges in right and left atria
- Trabeculae carnae: muscular ridges and columns on insidewalls of ventricles
Take blood to the heart muscles;
spent blood to right atrium through
- aorta- Right coronary artery - posterior inter-ventricular artery, right marginal artery
- aorta- left coronary artery - circumflex artery, anterior inter-ventricular artery.
- great, small cardiac vein - coronary sinus - right atrium
three major openings to receive blood returning from the body(superior vena cava, inferior vena cava,coronary sinus)
four openings that receive blood from pulmonary veins
wall between the atria
openings between atria and respective ventricles
opens to pulmonary trunk
opens to aorta
between the right and left ventricle
Flow of the blood through the heart
- Elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally located nuclei
- Contains actin and myosin myofilaments
- intercalcated disks: specialized cell-cell contacts.
- – Cell membranes interdigitate
- – Gap junctions allow action potentials to move from one cell to the next.
- Electrically, cardiac muscle of the atria and of the ventricles behaves as single unit
sinoatrial node. The pacemaker. Specialized cardiac muscle cells.Generate spontaneous action potentials. Action potentials pass to atrial muscle cells and to the AV node. It takes approx. 0.04 seconds!!
atrioventricular node. Action potentials conducted more slowly here than in any other part of system. (takes about 0.15 seconds before ventricles contract) Ensures ventricles won’t contract before atria have finished contracting.
passes to reach interventricular septum
Right and left bundle branches
extends to apices of right and left ventricles
Conduct action potential to ventricular muscle cells
Repetitive contraction (systole, means: to contract)
and relaxation (diastole, means:to dilate)
- systole heart sound
- Atrioventricular valves and surrounding fluid vibrations as valves close at beginning of ventricular systole(contraction)
- diastole heart sound
- Results from closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves at beginning of ventricular diastole(dilation), lasts longer because ventricles are filling
parasympathetic nerve fibers, vagus nerves innervate
- SA node
- cardioregulatory center controls frequency of action potentials
- (parasympathetic nerve fibers decrease heart rate)
sympathetic nerve fibers, cardic nerves innervate
- heart muscles
- sympathetic nerve fibers increase heart rate, stroke volume
sensory nerve fibers carry action potentials from
- baroreceptors in the wall of internal carotid artery and aorta
- carotid body chemorecptors to the cardio regulatory center
- chemorecptors in the medulla oblongata
Abdominal aorta branches (5 arteries)
- celiac trunk- stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen
- renal arteries- kidneys
- superior mesenteric artery- small intestine, first half of large intestine
- inferior mesenteric artery- second half of large intestine
- left, right common iliac artery- lower limbs
arteries of lower limb (2)
- femoral artery from external iliac artery
- popliteal artery- that artery in the back of the knee
arteries of the head an neck (4)
- from brachiocephalic artery -
- common carotid artery to-
- internal carotid (brain)
- external carotid (head)
- ; vertebral artery through tranverse foramen (only on cervical vertebrae) to brain
Hepatic portal system
All the blood that drains the digestive organs,filters through the liver via the hepatic (liver)portal system.
functions of blood (7)
- 1. Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products
- 2. Transport of processed molecules
- 3. Transport of regulatory molecules
- 4. Regulation of pH and osmosis
- 5. Maintenance of body temperature
- 6. Protection against foreign substances
- 7. Clot formation
plasma: % of blood volume, contents
- 55% total blood volume
- 91% water; remainder proteins, ions, nutrients,waste products, gases
- proteins: Albumin, Globulins, Fibrinogen
- plasma protein.
- regulates movement of water between blood and tissues
- plasma protien
- transports lipids and hormones;antibodies; protects tissues from damage by inflammation
Formed elements: % of blood volume (3 cells)
- 45% of total blood volume
- 1) Red blood cells (erythrocytes).
- 2) White blood cells (leukocytes)
- 3) Platelets (thrombocytes).
Red blood cells (erythrocytes). 95%. Biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. (males have 5.4million per microliter of blood)
- White blood cells
Platelets (thrombocytes). Cell fragment. Form platelet plugs, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting.
Process of bloodcell production
All formed elements derived from single population
- Four globin molecules (polypeptide chains):Transport carbon dioxide
- Four heme molecules, each containing one iron atom: transport oxygen
- Iron required for oxygen transport. Iron absorbed in upper small intestine;absorption increased by stomach acid and vitamin C. Iron is lost in urine, feces,menstrual fluid.
- 280 million hemoglobin molecules per red blood cell. Each heme molecule binds to one oxygen molecule. There are 4 heme molecules for every hemoglobin.(one billion molecules of oxygen)
containing one iron atom: transport oxygen
(polypeptide chains):Transport carbon dioxide
There are approx. ______ RBCs in a normal adult.
RBCs last ______ in circulation (enucleated)
Takes _____ to create anew RBC.
hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels.
after leaving bone marrow, phagocytize bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes and other foreign matter. Last 1-2 days.Account for 60-70% of the WBC. First to respond to infection.
Leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response. Prevalent in allergic reactions. Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine. Release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms,flukes, pinworms, and hookworms. Account for 2-4% of the WBC.
least common. Leave circulation and migrate through tissues, play a role in both inflammatory response and allergic reactions.Produce histamine (increase inflammation) and heparin (inhibits blood clotting). Account for less than 1% of the WBC.
produced in red bone marrow but then migrate to lymphatic tissues and proliferate(grow and divid). Responsible for antibody production.(B-cells destroy bacteria, T-cells fight against viruses). Studied extensively with the immune system. Account for 20-25% of the WBC.
remain in circulation for 3 days,leave circulation and become macrophages. Phagocytic cells. Account for 3-8% of the WBC.
- • Stages
- – Activation of prothrombinase(on the surface of platelets)
- – Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
- – Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin (forms the fibrous network of the clot)
- • Coagulation factors.
- – Proteins found in plasma.
- – Circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured.
- – Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that begin activation of the factors.
- • Result: blood clot. A network of thread like fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluid
Type A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodies
Suggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A and B antigens on bacteria and food
Donor: gives blood. Recipient: receives blood
Type O as “universal donor”. Can actually cause transfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma
- – Rh positive: Have these antigens present on surface of RBCs
- – Rh negative: Do not have these antigens present
Functions of the Respiratory System 5
- Gas exchange
- regulation Blood pH
- Voice production
Upper tract vs Lower tract
- Upper tract: nose,pharynx and associated structures
- Lower tract: larynx,trachea, bronchi,lungs and the tubing within the lungs
Functions of Nasal Cavity
- Passageway for air
- Cleans air
- Humidifies, warms air
- Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Mucous and debris is swallowed. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes. Floor is soft palate, uvula is posterior extension of the soft palate.
shared with digestive system. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium.
epiglottis to esophagus. Posterior to larynx. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. and transitional epithelium
function and location
- secrete mucus, move mucus from passages
- lining of the nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, auditory tubes, pharynx, trachea, bronchi of the lungs
moist stratified squamous epithelium
- protection against abrasion, reduction of water loss from body
- nonkeratinized- mouth, throat, larynx esophagus, anus, vagina, inferior urethra, cornea.
opening to trachea
Larynx; Largest of the cartilages (3)
- Thyroid: largest, Adam’s apple
- Cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx
- Epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue.
Larynx: Ligaments extend from arytenoids to thyroid cartilage
Vestibular folds or false vocal folds– True vocal cords or vocal folds: sound production. Opening between is glottis
Respiratory Bronchioles to Alveoli
- Respiratory zone: site for gas
- – Respiratory bronchioles branch
- from terminal bronchioles.
- Respiratory bronchioles have
- very few alveoli. Give rise to
- alveolar ducts which have more
- alveoli. Alveolar ducts end as
- alveolar sacs that have 2 or 3
- alveoli at their terminus.
- – No cilia, but debris removed by
- – Base sits on diaphragm, apex at the top, hilus on medial surface where bronchi and blood vessels enter the lung. All the structures in hilus called root of the lung.
- – Right lung: three lobes. Lobes separated by fissures
- – Left lung: Two lobes
Muscles of Respiration
- Inspiration: sternocleidomastoid, Scalenes, pectoralis minor, external intercostals, diaphagm
- expiration: internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
surrounds each lung and is formed by the pleural membranes.Filled with pleural fluid.
adherent to lung.
adherent to internal thoracic wall.