Heart and lungs

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Heart and lungs
2013-04-08 03:29:49
Cardiovascular respiratory systems

Cardiovascular respiratory systems
Show Answers:

  1. The heart is located between the lungs in the area known as the ____
  2. what is the innermost layer of the heart wall called?
  3. the apex off the heart is
    inferior to the rest of the heart.
  4. what is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart?
    interventricular sulcus
  5. Blood vessels that drain into the right atrium
    Inferior venacava, superior venacava, coronary sinus.
  6. Where does the great cardiac vein and small cardiac vein take blood?
    coronary sinus to right atrium.
  7. bicuspid valve is located
    between left atrium and left ventricle
  8. the structure between the atrioventricular valve and the papillary muscles
    chordae tendinae
  9. tricuspid valve =
    right atrioventricular valve.
  10. Common carotid artery, from ____ and____ to ___ and ____
    aortic arch to left internal, external carotid. brachiocephalic trunk  to right internal, external carotid
  11. Brachiochepalic artery
    aortic arch to right subclavian, right common carotid
  12. three vessels exit aortic arch
    carotid (left), subclavian (left), brachiocephalic (right)
  13. Subclavian to digital ... (7 vessels)
    • 1. subclavian
    • 2. axillary
    • 3. brachial
    • 4, 5. radial, ulnar
    • 6. superficial palmer arch
    • 7. digital
  14. capsule that holds the heart
    two parts
    • fibrous pericardium (outer)
    • serious pericardium (inner)
  15. serious membrane
    is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells, which secrete serous fluid, and a thin epithelial layer. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement.
  16. serious pericardium consists of
    • Parietal pericardium (adheres to inside of fibrous pericardium)
    • Visceral pericardium (epicardium) (adheres to surface of heart)
  17. pericardial cavity
    • filled with pericardial fluid
    • separates serious membranes (parietal and visceral layers)
  18. base vs. apex of heart
    • base = top
    • apex = bottom left (point of left ventrical)
  19. pericardium is attached to
  20. the mediastinum lies between
    the right and left pleura
  21. Vein vs artery
    • veins carry blood toward heart
    • arterys carry blood away from heart
  22. Heart wall
    three tissue layers
    • epicardium (visceral pericardium) Serous membrane;smooth outer surface of heart- made up of simple squamous epithelium (superficial) loose connective and adipose tissue (deep)
    • Myocardium: Middle layer
    • composed of cardiac muscle cell
    • and responsibility for heart
    • contracting
    • endocardium: Smooth innersurface of heart chambers
  23. two types of muscles of the inner heart wall
    • Pectinate muscles: muscular ridges in right and left atria
    • Trabeculae carnae: muscular ridges and columns on insidewalls of ventricles
  24. Take blood to the heart muscles;
    spent blood to right atrium through
    • aorta- Right coronary artery - posterior inter-ventricular artery, right marginal artery
    • aorta- left coronary artery - circumflex artery, anterior inter-ventricular artery.
    • great, small cardiac vein - coronary sinus - right atrium
  25. Right atrium
    three major openings to receive blood returning from the body(superior vena cava, inferior vena cava,coronary sinus)
  26. Left atrium:
    four openings that receive blood from pulmonary veins
  27. Interatrial septum:
    wall between the atria
  28. Atrioventricular valves
    openings between atria and respective ventricles
  29. Right ventricle
    opens to pulmonary trunk
  30. Left ventricle
    opens to aorta
  31. Interventricular septum
    between the right and left ventricle
  32. Flow of the blood through the heart
  33. cardiac muscle
    • Elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally located nuclei
    • Contains actin and myosin myofilaments
    • intercalcated disks: specialized cell-cell contacts.
    • – Cell membranes interdigitate
    • – Gap junctions allow action potentials to move from one cell to the next.
    • Electrically, cardiac muscle of the atria and of the ventricles behaves as single unit
  34. SA node:
    sinoatrial node. The pacemaker. Specialized cardiac muscle cells.Generate spontaneous action potentials. Action potentials pass to atrial muscle cells and to the AV node. It takes approx. 0.04 seconds!!
  35. AV node:
    atrioventricular node. Action potentials conducted more slowly here than in any other part of system. (takes about 0.15 seconds before ventricles contract) Ensures ventricles won’t contract before atria have finished contracting.
  36. AV bundle:
    passes to reach interventricular septum
  37. Right and left bundle branches
    extends to apices of right and left ventricles
  38. Purkinje fibers:
    Conduct action potential to ventricular muscle cells
  39. systole
    Repetitive contraction (systole, means: to contract)
  40. diastole
    and relaxation (diastole, means:to dilate)
  41. lub
    • systole heart sound
    • Atrioventricular valves and surrounding fluid vibrations as valves close at beginning of ventricular systole(contraction)
  42. dub
    • diastole heart sound
    • Results from closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves at beginning of ventricular diastole(dilation), lasts longer because ventricles are filling
  43. parasympathetic nerve fibers, vagus nerves innervate
    • SA node
    • cardioregulatory center controls frequency of action potentials
    • (parasympathetic nerve fibers decrease heart rate)
  44. sympathetic nerve fibers, cardic nerves innervate
    • heart muscles
    • sympathetic nerve fibers increase heart rate, stroke volume
  45. sensory nerve fibers carry action potentials from
    • baroreceptors in the wall of internal carotid artery and aorta
    • carotid body chemorecptors to the cardio regulatory center
    • chemorecptors in the medulla oblongata
  46. Abdominal aorta branches (5 arteries)
    • celiac trunk- stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen
    • renal arteries- kidneys
    • superior mesenteric artery- small intestine, first half of large intestine
    • inferior mesenteric artery- second half of large intestine
    • left, right common iliac artery- lower limbs
  47. arteries of lower limb (2)
    • femoral artery from external iliac artery
    • popliteal artery- that artery in the back of the knee
  48. arteries of the head an neck (4)
    • from brachiocephalic artery -
    • common carotid artery to-
    • internal carotid (brain)
    • external carotid (head)
    • ; vertebral artery through tranverse foramen (only on cervical vertebrae) to brain
  49. Hepatic portal system
    All the blood that drains the digestive organs,filters through the liver via the hepatic (liver)portal system.
  50. Baro
  51. plumo
    a lung
  52. peri
  53. atrium
    a vestibule
  54. vent
    the underside
  55. functions of blood (7)
    • 1. Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products
    • 2. Transport of processed molecules
    • 3. Transport of regulatory molecules
    • 4. Regulation of pH and osmosis
    • 5. Maintenance of body temperature
    • 6. Protection against foreign substances
    • 7. Clot formation
  56. plasma: % of blood volume, contents
    • 55% total blood volume
    • 91% water; remainder proteins, ions, nutrients,waste products, gases
    • proteins: Albumin, Globulins, Fibrinogen
  57. Albumin
    • plasma protein.
    • regulates movement of water between blood and tissues
  58. Globulins
    • plasma protien
    • transports lipids and hormones;antibodies; protects tissues from damage by inflammation
  59. Fibrinogen
    blood clotting
  60. Formed elements: % of blood volume (3 cells)
    • 45% of total blood volume
    • 1) Red blood cells (erythrocytes).
    • 2) White blood cells (leukocytes)
    • 3) Platelets (thrombocytes).
  61. erythrocytes
    Red blood cells (erythrocytes). 95%. Biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. (males have 5.4million per microliter of blood)
  62. leukocytes (5)
    • White blood cells
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  63. thrombocytes
    Platelets (thrombocytes). Cell fragment. Form platelet plugs, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting.
  64. Hematopoiesis
    Process of bloodcell production
  65. Stem cells
    All formed elements derived from single population
  66. Hemoglobin Composition
    • Four globin molecules (polypeptide chains):Transport carbon dioxide
    • Four heme molecules, each containing one iron atom: transport oxygen
    • Iron required for oxygen transport. Iron absorbed in upper small intestine;absorption increased by stomach acid and vitamin C. Iron is lost in urine, feces,menstrual fluid.
    • 280 million hemoglobin molecules per red blood cell. Each heme molecule binds to one oxygen molecule. There are 4 heme molecules for every hemoglobin.(one billion molecules of oxygen)
  67. heme
    containing one iron atom: transport oxygen
  68. globin
    (polypeptide chains):Transport carbon dioxide
  69. There are approx. ______ RBCs in a normal adult.
    25 trillion
  70. RBCs last ______ in circulation (enucleated)
    120 days
  71. Takes _____ to create anew RBC.
    4 days
  72. Erythropoietin
    hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels.
  73. Neutrophils
    after leaving bone marrow, phagocytize bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes and other foreign matter. Last 1-2 days.Account for 60-70% of the WBC. First to respond to infection.
  74. Eosinophils
    Leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response. Prevalent in allergic reactions. Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine. Release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms,flukes, pinworms, and hookworms. Account for 2-4% of the WBC.
  75. Basophils
    least common. Leave circulation and migrate through tissues, play a role in both inflammatory response and allergic reactions.Produce histamine (increase inflammation) and heparin (inhibits blood clotting). Account for less than 1% of the WBC.
  76. Lymphocytes
    produced in red bone marrow but then migrate to lymphatic tissues and proliferate(grow and divid). Responsible for antibody production.(B-cells destroy bacteria, T-cells fight against viruses). Studied extensively with the immune system. Account for 20-25% of the WBC.
  77. Monocytes
    remain in circulation for 3 days,leave circulation and become macrophages. Phagocytic cells. Account for 3-8% of the WBC.
  78. Coagulation
    • • Stages
    • – Activation of prothrombinase(on the surface of platelets)
    • – Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    • – Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin (forms the fibrous network of the clot)
    • • Coagulation factors.
    • – Proteins found in plasma.
    • – Circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured.
    • – Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that begin activation of the factors.
    • • Result: blood clot. A network of thread like fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluid
  79. Type A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodies
    Suggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A and B antigens on bacteria and food
    Donor: gives blood. Recipient: receives blood
    Type O as “universal donor”. Can actually cause transfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma
    • – Rh positive: Have these antigens present on surface of RBCs
    • – Rh negative: Do not have these antigens present
  80. Erythro
  81. Poiesis
    make, produce
  82. Hemo
  83. Glob
    a ball
  84. Leuko
  85. Thrombo
    a clot
  86. Functions of the Respiratory System 5
    • Gas exchange
    • regulation Blood pH
    • Voice production
    • Olfaction
    • Protection
  87. Upper tract vs Lower tract
    • Upper tract: nose,pharynx and associated structures
    • Lower tract: larynx,trachea, bronchi,lungs and the tubing within the lungs
  88. Functions of Nasal Cavity
    • Passageway for air
    • Cleans air
    • Humidifies, warms air
    • smell
    • Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
  89. nasopharynx
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Mucous and debris is swallowed. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes. Floor is soft palate, uvula is posterior extension of the soft palate.
  90. oropharynx
    shared with digestive system. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium.
  91. laryngopharynx
    epiglottis to esophagus. Posterior to larynx. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium.
  92. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. and transitional epithelium
    function and location
    • secrete mucus, move mucus from passages
    • lining of the nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, auditory tubes, pharynx, trachea, bronchi of the lungs
  93. moist stratified squamous epithelium
    • protection against abrasion, reduction of water loss from body
    • nonkeratinized- mouth, throat, larynx esophagus, anus, vagina, inferior urethra, cornea.
  94. larynx
    opening to trachea
  95. Larynx; Largest of the cartilages (3)
    • Thyroid: largest, Adam’s apple
    • Cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx
    • Epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue.
  96. Larynx: Ligaments extend from arytenoids to thyroid cartilage
    Vestibular folds or false vocal folds– True vocal cords or vocal folds: sound production. Opening between is glottis
  97. Respiratory Zone:
    Respiratory Bronchioles to Alveoli
    • Respiratory zone: site for gas
    • exchange
    • Respiratory bronchioles branch
    • from terminal bronchioles.
    • Respiratory bronchioles have
    • very few alveoli. Give rise to
    • alveolar ducts which have more
    • alveoli. Alveolar ducts end as
    • alveolar sacs that have 2 or 3
    • alveoli at their terminus.
    • – No cilia, but debris removed by
    • macrophages.
  98. Lungs: anatomy
    • – Base sits on diaphragm, apex at the top, hilus on medial surface where bronchi and blood vessels enter the lung. All the structures in hilus called root of the lung.
    • – Right lung: three lobes. Lobes separated by fissures
    • – Left lung: Two lobes
  99. Muscles of Respiration
    • Inspiration: sternocleidomastoid, Scalenes, pectoralis minor, external intercostals, diaphagm
    • expiration: internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
  100. Pleural cavity
    surrounds each lung and is formed by the pleural membranes.Filled with pleural fluid.
  101. visceral pleura
    adherent to lung.
  102. parietal pleura
    adherent to internal thoracic wall.
  103. Respir
  104. Pharynx
    the throat
  105. Vestibul
    empty room
  106. Oro
    the mouth
  107. Trache
    the windpipe
  108. Bronchi
    the windpipe