GCSE CHemistry 3

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GCSE CHemistry 3
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2013-04-08 09:44:30
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  1. use equations to explain how pure water can become temporary hard water and how this change got rid of
  2. There are two types of distillation That can be used to obtain pure water
    Solar distillation And flash distillation
  3. Where/when can solar distillation be used
    • On desert coastlines to obtain drinking water from the sea 
    • it could be used on stranded boats to obtain drinking water from the sea 
    • it could be used iI underdeveloped countries to obtain drinking water from water contaminated by microorganisms
  4. how does flash distillation work
    Heats the water under pressure then fast evaporation occurs
  5. What are sac advantages of flash distillation
    We can obtain drinking water from the sea
  6. What are the disadvantages of flash distillation
    • It uses fossil fuels which Releases Carbon dioxide into the atmosphere so there is an increased contribution towards global warming 
    • it produces a concentrated salt solution which must be disposed of carefully or it could seriously damage the ecology of the sea
  7. What are the advantages of having fluoride ions
    in drinking water
    • healthier teeth 
    • reduces NHS bills
  8. What are the disadvantages of having fluoride ions in drinking water
    • Can cause bone weakening 
    • tooth Mottling
  9. What is the equation for the addition of chlorine to water
    Cl2 + H2O --> OCl- + 2H+ + 2Cl-

    the OCl- is hyper-chlorite which kills bacteria
  10. There are two types of water filters
    • Activated charcoal - which has a high surface areas with a slight + chArge 
    • microscopic silver particles - this kills microorganisms that grow in filters
  11. What are the advantages of having chlorine in water
    Kills bacteria
  12. What are the disadvantages of having chlorine in water
    • Taste 
    • too much can be toxic
  13. What are the advantages of ion exchange
    Gets rid of temporary and permanent hardness
  14. What are the disadvantages of ion exchange
    • magnesium and calcium ions are swapped for sodium and hydrogen ions 
    • magnesium and calcium ions are good for our health but too much sodium can lead it high blood pressure and heart problems
  15. What are the benefits of hard water
    • Good for bones and teeth 
    • reduces risk of Heart problems 
    • increases overall lifespan 
    • reduces risk of intestinal cancers 
    • Tastes better 
    • brewers prefer it for making beer

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