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The myocardium is made up of:
Cardiac muscle cells, myocytes
What is the basic unit of a muscle?
What is action potential?
Action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls.
The repolarization of action potential is brought about by the opening of:
Relaxation of the heart muscle is caused by removal of calcium from the cytoplasm by:
Hypo- and Hyperkalemia are:
Low and high potassium levels
Hypo- and Hypercalcemia are:
Low and high calcium levels
The coordinated contraction of the heart is due to an:
Action potential being initiated
The _____ contracts and depolarizes the entire heart
Electrical activity of the cardiac cells can be detected by using:
Irregular heart rhythms on an ECG are known as:
During expiration there is a reduction in the heart rate, known as ______. This is followed by an increase during inspiration called ______.
- Sinus bradycardia-expiration
- Sinus tachycardia-inspiration
The most dangerous form of arrhythmia is:
The sequence of events which make up each heart beat is called the:
The amount of blood pumped at each heart beat is called the:
The amount pumped each minute is called:
- Stroke Volume, which is about 70mL
- Cardiac output
The period of contraction of heart muscle is called the:
The period of relaxation is called the:
Cardiac output equation:
- CO = SV x HR
- Cardiac output = Stroke volume x Heart rate
Blood pressure usually refers to pressure in:
The systemic arteries
The relationship between pressure and resistance in a fluid is represented by Whose law?
Cardiac output is ~5L/m at rest
What is Laminar flow and what is Turbulent flow?
- Laminar flow is smooth and parallel ⇶
- Turbulent flow has eddies and swirls ↭↺↬
What are the 3 layers of an artery?
- Tunica intima - innermost layer
- Tunica media - middle layer
- Tunica externa - outermost layer
Factors that control flow in blood vessels:
- Extrinsic factors control the small arteries and arterioles with thick walls
- Intrinsic factors control the smaller terminal arterioles
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