Body 3

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  1. The myocardium is made up of:
    Cardiac muscle cells, myocytes
  2. What is the basic unit of a muscle?
  3. What is action potential?
    Action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls.
  4. The repolarization of action potential is brought about by the opening of:
    Potassium channels
  5. Relaxation of the heart muscle is caused by removal of calcium from the cytoplasm by:
    Calcium transporters
  6. Hypo- and Hyperkalemia are:
    Low and high potassium levels
  7. Hypo- and Hypercalcemia are:
    Low and high calcium levels
  8. The coordinated contraction of the heart is due to an:
    Action potential being initiated
  9. The _____ contracts and depolarizes the entire heart
    Cardiac pacemaker
  10. Electrical activity of the cardiac cells can be detected by using:
    Electrocardiography (ECG)
  11. Irregular heart rhythms on an ECG are known as:
  12. During expiration there is a reduction in the heart rate, known as ______. This is followed by an increase during inspiration called ______.
    • Sinus bradycardia-expiration
    • Sinus tachycardia-inspiration
  13. The most dangerous form of arrhythmia is:
    Ventricular fibrillation
  14. The sequence of events which make up each heart beat is called the:
    Cardiac cycle
  15. The amount of blood pumped at each heart beat is called the:
    The amount pumped each minute is called:
    • Stroke Volume, which is about 70mL
    • Cardiac output
  16. The period of contraction of heart muscle is called the:
    The period of relaxation is called the:
    • Systole
    • Diastole
  17. Cardiac output equation:
    • CO = SV x HR
    • Cardiac output = Stroke volume x Heart rate
  18. Blood pressure usually refers to pressure in:
    The systemic arteries
  19. The relationship between pressure and resistance in a fluid is represented by Whose law?
    • Darcy's Law
    • Q=ΔP/R
  20. Cardiac output is ~5L/m at rest
  21. What is Laminar flow and what is Turbulent flow?
    • Laminar flow is smooth and parallel ⇶
    • Turbulent flow has eddies and swirls ↭↺↬
  22. What are the 3 layers of an artery?
    • Tunica intima - innermost layer
    • Tunica media - middle layer
    • Tunica externa - outermost layer
  23. Factors that control flow in blood vessels:
    • Extrinsic factors control the small arteries and arterioles with thick walls
    • Intrinsic factors control the smaller terminal arterioles
Card Set:
Body 3
2013-04-08 14:04:31


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