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Lipid soluble compounds can diffuse freely across the cell membranes without the need for pores. Examples-
- Carbon dioxide
Lipid insoluble materials-
The most common type of capillary is the
Continuous capillary. There are also Fenestrated and sinusoidal capillaries.
Things that can block an artery:
Fat, Nitrogen, Air, Debris, Cells
What is the Baroreceptor reflex?
It is a reflex arc consisting of sensory elements (baroreceptors) that supply information about blood pressure to the brain. These are found in the aortic arch and carotid sinus
The Starling forces are:
- Hydrostatic pressure
- Oncotic pressure
The classic symptoms of inflammation are:
- Rubor (redness)
- Calor (heat)
- Dolor (pain)
- Tumor (swelling)
Embolism occurs when part of a thrombus (blood clot) breaks off and travels to lodge in another vessel. It:
Blocks blood flow in vessels and can be potentially fatal
The first response to shock is:
The activation of the baroreceptor reflex by a fall in blood pressure, which causes and increase in heart rate (tachycardia)
Angina is caused by:
An inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart. Causes central chest pain.
Myocardial infarction occurs when:
There is a persistent blockage of a coronary artery, leading to the death of heart muscle by necrosis
Treatments for Myocardial Infarction (MI):
- Limiting the size of the thrombosis
The 2 types of skeletal muscle are:
- Tonic/red muscles
- Phasic/white muscles
The skin is the main way humans regulate body temperature. Heat can be lost from the skin by:
At about day 17 after fertilization, mesenchymal cells start to form 2 endothelial tubes. This is the beginning of the formation of the:
The fetus' lungs are not inflated and do not recieve oxygen until after birth. It recieves oxygen and other nutrients via the:
Waste products leave the fetus via the:
At birth, with the baby's first breaths the lungs inflate. Changes in the fetal circulation after birth include:
- Blood flow in the umbilical cord is stopped
- Pressures in the left and right atria reverse
- 3 fetal shunts close
In the fetus, more blood is pumped out of the right ventricle than the left. This is reversed after birth.
Congenital heart abnormalities are rare and can be due to genetic or environmental causes.