Body 4

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Body 4
2013-04-09 05:42:48


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  1. Lipid soluble compounds can diffuse freely across the cell membranes without the need for pores. Examples-
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Cholesterol
  2. Lipid insoluble materials-
    • Water
    • Albumin
  3. The most common type of capillary is the
    Continuous capillary. There are also Fenestrated and sinusoidal capillaries.
  4. Things that can block an artery:
    Fat, Nitrogen, Air, Debris, Cells
  5. What is the Baroreceptor reflex?
    It is a reflex arc consisting of sensory elements (baroreceptors) that supply information about blood pressure to the brain. These are found in the aortic arch and carotid sinus
  6. The Starling forces are:
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Oncotic pressure
  7. The classic symptoms of inflammation are:
    • Rubor (redness)
    • Calor (heat)
    • Dolor (pain)
    • Tumor (swelling)
  8. Embolism occurs when part of a thrombus (blood clot) breaks off and travels to lodge in another vessel. It:
    Blocks blood flow in vessels and can be potentially fatal
  9. The first response to shock is:
    The activation of the baroreceptor reflex by a fall in blood pressure, which causes and increase in heart rate (tachycardia)
  10. Angina is caused by:
    An inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart. Causes central chest pain.
  11. Myocardial infarction occurs when:
    There is a persistent blockage of a coronary artery, leading to the death of heart muscle by necrosis
  12. Treatments for Myocardial Infarction (MI):
    • Limiting the size of the thrombosis
    • Asprin
  13. The 2 types of skeletal muscle are:
    • Tonic/red muscles
    • Phasic/white muscles
  14. The skin is the main way humans regulate body temperature. Heat can be lost from the skin by:
    • Radiation
    • Convection
    • Evaporation
    • Conduction
  15. At about day 17 after fertilization, mesenchymal cells start to form 2 endothelial tubes. This is the beginning of the formation of the:
  16. The fetus' lungs are not inflated and do not recieve oxygen until after birth. It recieves oxygen and other nutrients via the:
    Umbilical vein
  17. Waste products leave the fetus via the:
    Umbilical arteries
  18. At birth, with the baby's first breaths the lungs inflate. Changes in the fetal circulation after birth include:
    • Blood flow in the umbilical cord is stopped
    • Pressures in the left and right atria reverse
    • 3 fetal shunts close
  19. In the fetus, more blood is pumped out of the right ventricle than the left. This is reversed after birth.
    Congenital heart abnormalities are rare and canĀ  be due to genetic or environmental causes.