MISC

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MISC
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  1. What makes LMX different from other leadership theories?
    - some theories focus on leaders, other thoeries focus on the follower and context, BUT leader-member exchange theory conceptualizes leadership as a process and is centered on the interactions between a leader and subordinate
  2. Critical assumption of other leadership theories that LMX challenges?
    - challenges the assumption that leaders treat followers in a collective way as a group. - LMX directed attention to the differences that might exist between the leader and each of his/her followers
  3. Characteristics of In-group & what they are more likely to receive?
    - expanded/negotiated role responsibilities (extra roles), relationships marked by mutual trust, respect, liking and reciprocal influence, - more likely to receive more information, influence confidence, - and concern than out group members, more dependable highly invovled and communicative
  4. Characteristics of out-group & what they are more likely to receive?
    - formal employment contract (defined roles), - relationship marked by formal communication based on job descriptions, - less compatible, usually ust come to work and go home
  5. LMX results in positive outcomes for what general categories?
    (organizational effectiveness) - leaders, - followers, - groups, - organizations in general
  6. Phases of LMX leadership
    - stranger phase, - acquaintance phase, - mature partnership phase
  7. Stranger phase
    - interactions within the leader subordinate dyad are generally rule bound, - rely on contractual relationships, - relate to each other within prescribed organizational roles, - experience lower quality exchances, - motives of subordinate directed toward self-interest rather than good of the group
  8. Acquaintance phase
    - begins with an offer by leader/subordinate for improved career-oriented social exchanges, - testing period for both asseing whether ~ the subordinate is interested in taking on new roles ~ leader is willing to provide new challenges, - shift in dyad from formalized interactions to new ways of relating, - quality of exchanges improve along with greater trust and respect, - less focus on self-interest more on goals of the group
  9. Mature partnership phase
    - marked by high quality leader member exchanges, - experience high degree of mutual trust, respect and obligation twoards each other, - tested relationship and found it dependable, - high degree of reciprocity between leaders and subordinates, - may depend on each other for favors and special assistance, - highly developed patterns of relating that produce positive outcomes for both themselves and organization, - partnerships are transofmational moving beyond self interest ot accomplish greater good of the team and organization
  10. Be able to identify a relationship in each of the phases
  11. What leaders should aim for in their relationships with followers? (summarize)
  12. Strengths
    - validates our experience, - the dyadic relationship is the centerpiece, - communication, - solid research foundation
  13. Validates our experience
    - strong descriptive theory, - confirms our experience that people within orgs relate to each other and the leader more than others
  14. Dyadic relationship
    makes the dyadic relationship the centerpiece of leadership process
  15. Communication
    effective leadership occurs when communication of leaders and subordinates are high quality exchanges
  16. Solid research foundation
    backed up by research on the positive outcomes of leader member exchange
  17. Criticisms
    - appears unfair and discriminatory, - basic theoretical ideas are underdeveloped, - various scales and levels of analysis
  18. Unfair and discriminatory
    due to the separation of groups in groups and out groups, does not address the issues of fairness
  19. Basic theoretical ideas are underdeveloped
    failes to explain how high quality exchanges are created
  20. Various cales and level of analysis
    results are not directly compatible, measurement scales lack content validity which mean they are not measuring what they are intended to measure
  21. Burn's 3 type of leadership
    - transactional, - transformational, - pseudotransformational
  22. Transactional
    - focuses on the exchanges that occur between leader and their followers, - the exchange dimension is so common that you can observe it at all walks of life, ex: surpass goals = promotion, no new taxes = votes, sell more cars = bonus, turn in assignments = grade
  23. Transformational
    - process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower, - leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers reach their ullest potential - socialized leadership ex: mohandas Gandhi
  24. Pseudo transformational
    - focuses on the leaders own intersts rather than the interests of their followers, leaders who are - transforming but in a negative way, - self consumed exploitive power oriented and warped moral values, - personalized leadership, Ex: adolph hitler, saddam hussein
  25. Dr.Scherwin's perspective of the pseudo-transformational description
  26. Describe the process and core elements of the transformational approach including charisma and influence
    - process, - influence, - core elements, - encompassing approach, - charisma, charismatic leadership tehory
  27. Descriptive
    Transformational
  28. Prescriptive
  29. Predictive
  30. Graen & Uhl-Bein
    leadership making
  31. Burns
    types of leadership defined: transactionl, transformational, pseudotransformational
  32. Larson & LeFasto
    characteristics of team excellence
  33. Hackman & Walton
    conditions of group effectiveness
  34. Bass
    modelf o transformational leadership: same continuum
  35. House
    theory of charsimatic leadership: personality characteristics, behaviors, effects on followers
  36. Kouzes & Pozner
    5 fundamental practices: model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, encourage the heart
  37. Process
    - that changes and transforms individuals, - incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership
  38. Influence
    - TL invovlves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them
  39. Core elements
    - is concerned with emotions, values, ethics standards and long term goals, - includes assessing followers motives satisfying their needs and treating them as full human beings
  40. Encompassing approach
    - describes a wide range of leadership influence: specific: one on one, broad: whole org or culture, - followers and leader are inextricably bound together int he transformation process
  41. Charisma
    - a special personality characteristics that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin and results in the person being treated as a leader
  42. Charismatic leadership theory
    - charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on followers
  43. Theory of charismatic leadership
    - personality characteristics, - behaviors, - effects on followers
  44. Personality characteristics
    - dominant, - desire to influence, - confident, - strong values
  45. Behaviors
    - sets strong role model, - shows competence, - articulates goals, - communicates high expectations, - expresses confidence, - arrouses motives
  46. Effects on followers
    - trusts in leaders ideology, - belief similarity between leader and follower, - unquestioning acceptance, - affection toward leader, - obedience, - identification with leader, - emotional involvement, - hightened goals, - increased confidence
  47. What does Bass's model say about charisma?
    - expanded and refined work done by Burns and house and included, - extended houses's work by, - TL motivates followers beyond the expected by
  48. Expanded
    - more attention to followers rather than leaders needs, - suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive, - described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum
  49. Extended
    - giving more attention to emotional elements and origins of charisma, - suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL,
  50. TL Motivates
    - raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals, - transcending self- interest for the good of the team or organization, - addressing higher level needs
  51. Be able to recognize the factors in Bass's model of leadership
    - transformatinal leadership, - transactional leadership, - laissez faire leadership
  52. Transformational leadership factors
    - idealized influence charisma, - inspirational motivation, - intellectual stimulation, - individualized consideration
  53. Transactional leadership factors
    - contingent reward / constructive transactions, - management by exception/ active and passive/ corrective transactions
  54. Laissez faire leadership factors
    - laissez-faire / non transactional
  55. Distinguish between the 4 factors of transformational leadership
    -idealized influence (charisma), - inspirational motivation, - intellectual stimulation, - individualized consideration
  56. Idealized influence charisma
    - describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers, ~ followers identify with leaders and emulate them, - leaders have high standards of ethical and moral conduct, ~ followers deeply respect and trusts leaders, ~ leaders provide a vision and sense of mission
  57. Inspirational motivation
    - leaders who communicate high expectations to followers: ~ inspiring followers through motivation to commitment and engagement in shared vision of the organizaiton, ~ leaders use symbols and emotional appeals to focus group memebers to achieve more than self interest but team spirit promoted
  58. Intellectual stimulation
    - stimulates follower sto be creative and innovative, ~ challenge their own beliefs and values those of leader and organization, ~ leader supports followers to try new approaches, develop innovative ways of ealing with organization issues
  59. Individualized consideration
    - leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the needs of followers, ~ leaders act as coaches and advisors encouraging self actualization
  60. According to Bass's model how does leader acquire performance beyond expectations?
    refer to slide 53
  61. Recognize 5 factors of Kouzes and Pozner model
    - model the way, - inspire a shared vision, - challenge the process, - enable others to act, - encourage the heart
  62. Model the way
    exemplary leaders set a personal example for otheres by their own behavior
  63. Inspire a shared vision
    effective leaders inspire visions that challenge others to transcend the status quo to do somethign for others
  64. Challenge the process
    leaders are like pioneers are willing ot innovate, grow, take risks and improve
  65. Enable others to act
    leaders create environments where people can feel good about their work and how it contributes to greater community
  66. Encourage the heart
    leaders use authentic celebrations & rituals to show appreciation and encouragement to others
  67. Strenghts
    - broadly researched, - intuitive appeal, - process-focused, - expansive leadership view, - emphasizes follower and effectiveness
  68. Broadly researched
    widely researched from many different perspectives of well known orgs and CEOs
  69. Intuitive appeal
    describes how the leader is out front advocating change for others
  70. Process focused
    followers gain a more prominent position in the leadership process
  71. Expansive leadership view
    not only includes the exchanges of rewards but also attention to the needs and growth of followers
  72. Emphasizes followers and effectivenesss
    suggests leadership has a moral dimension
  73. Criticisms
    - lacks conceptual clarity, - measurement is questioned, - personality trait vs behavior, - elitists and antidemocratic, -heroic leadership bias and can be abused
  74. Lacks conceptual clarity
    cover such a wide range of activities and characteristics. ex: transformational and charismatic leadership are the same even thou charisma is only one component of transformational
  75. Measurement is questioned
    MLQ four factors of transformational leadership are highly correlated with each other and do not represent distinct factors
  76. Personality vs Behavior
    transformational leadership is seen more as a trait or personality rather than behavior that can be taught
  77. Elitists and antidemocratic
    can sometimes display the leader as acting independent from followers and putting himself above followers needs
  78. Heroic
    heroic leadership bias, by focusing on the leader you fail to see the influence followers have on leaders
  79. Abuse
    who is to determine that the new vision is good or not good?
  80. What is different about the team model compared to other leadership theories?
    team based problem solving
  81. How is team effectveness evaluated?
    evaluated by leadership functionality, leader's mental model of the situation
  82. Understand each of the 8 characteristics of an effective team
    - clear elevating goal, - results driven structure, - competent team members, - unified commitment, - collaborative climate, - standards of excellence, - external support, - principled leadership
  83. Clear elevating goal
    - clear so that all can tell if performance objective has been met, - is motivating or involving so that members believe it is worthwhile and important
  84. Results driven structure
    - did you need a team at all? , - need to find best structure to achieve goals: clear team meber roles, good communication, methods toa ssess individual performance, an emphasis on fact based judgements
  85. Competent team members
    components: - right number and mix of members, - members must be provided sufficient information and education/ training, - requisitve technical and interspersonal skills
  86. Unified commitment
    teams need a carefully designed and developed sense of unity or identification team spirit
  87. Collaborative climate
    - trust based on openness honesty consistency and respect, - integration of individual actions, - leaders facilitate a collaborative climate
  88. Standards of excellence
    - regulated performance, - how accomplished by the leader: requireing resul, reviewing results, rewarding results
  89. External support and recognition
    - teams supported by external resources are, - give then tmaterial resources needed to do their jobs, - recognized for team accomplishments, - rewarded by tying those rewards to team members performance not individual achievement
  90. Principled leadership
    - inluences team effectiveness through 4 sets of processes: - cognitive, - motivational, - affective, - integrative
  91. Identify the 4 elements of principled leadership
    - cognitive, - motivational, - affective, - integrative
  92. Cognitive
    leader helps the team understand the problems confronting the team
  93. Motivational
    helps the team becoem more cohesive and capably by setting high performance standards and helping the group to achieve them
  94. Affective
    helps the team handle stressful circumstances by providing clear oals, assignments and strategies
  95. Integrative
    helps integrate the teams activities by matching member skills to roles providing clear performance strategies, monioring feedback and adapting to enviornmental changes
  96. Identify the 3 leadership decisions in the team model
    - monitor or take action, - task or relational, - internal or external
  97. 1
    continue monitoring the team or take action based on current information
  98. 2
    determine the general task or relational function of intervention needed
  99. 3
    intervene at internal level within team or external level teams environment
  100. Know McGrath's 4 critical leadership functions (table 12.2)
    1 , 2 , 3, 4
  101. 1 ( internal & monitor)
    diagnosing group deficiencies
  102. 2 ( internal & executive action )
    taking remedial action
  103. 3 ( external & monitor )
    forecasting environmental changes
  104. 4 ( external & executive action )
    preventing deleterious changes
  105. What are the 3 categories of leadership actions from Hill's model
    - leadership decisions, - internal/external leadership actions, - team effectiveness
  106. Leadership decisions
    - monitor, - task/relational, - internal/external
  107. Internal leadership actions/ External leadership actions
    - task / relational, - environmental
  108. Team effectiveness
    - performance, - development
  109. Main ways in which team model can be applied in real organizations
  110. Da Vita
  111. Strenghts
    - provides answers, provides a cognitive guide, - recognizes the changing roles, - can be used as tool
  112. Provides answers
    helps you know what an excellent team
  113. Provides a cognitive guide
    gives a road map to monitor and maintain effective teams
  114. Recognizes the changing roles
    takes into account the changing roles of leaders focuses on the critical functions of leadership as diagnosis and action taking
  115. Can be used as a tool
    in leader selection
  116. Criticisms
    - not totally supported or tested, - doesnt include all skills, - fails to provide much guidance and how to teach and provide skill development for the wide range of skills required
  117. Not totally supported or tested
    not thoroughly empiraclly supported
  118. Doesn't include all the skills
    maybe they mean decisions
  119. Fails to provide much guidance
    complex - may not be practical
  120. Requires lots of skills
    doesn't teach how to provide skill development
  121. Leadership making phase table
    - roles, - exchanges, - influences, - interests
  122. Descriptive & prescritpive
    LMX
  123. LMX descriptively:
    - recognizes the existence of in groups and out groups within an organization, - significant differences in how goals are accomplished using in groups vs out groups, - relevant differences in in groups vs out group behaviors
  124. LMS prescriptively:
    - leader should offer each subordinate an opportunity for new roles/responsibilties, - leader should nurture high-quality exhanges with all subordinates, - rather than concentrating on differences leader focuses on ways to build trust and respect with all subordinates resulting in entire work group becoming an in group
  125. Phase 1
    R: scripted, I: one way, E: low quality, I: self interest
  126. Phase 2
    R: tested, I: mixed, E: medium quality, I: self and other interest
  127. Phase 3
    R: negotiated, I: reciprocal, E: high quality, I: group interest
  128. Transactiona leadership factors
    - contingent reward, - management by exception, - laissez faire
  129. Contingent reward
    the exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards
  130. Management by exception
    leadership that invovles corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement. Two forms: active - watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violates, passive - intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen
  131. Laissez - Faire
    - the absence of leadership, - a hands off let things ride approach, - refers to a leader who: abdicates responsibilty, delays decisions, gives no feed back, and makes little effort to help follower satisfy their needs
  132. Predictive & prescriptive
    Team leader
  133. Predictive
    1st part is predictive
  134. Prescriptive
    for the leader
  135. Characteristics of team excellence
    - clear engaging direction, - enabling structure, - enabling context, - adequate material resources, - expert coaching
  136. Condition of group effectiveness
    - clear elevating goal, - results driven structure, - competent team members, - unified commitment, - collaborative climate, - standards f excellence, - external support and recognition, - principled leadership
  137. Internal task
  138. Internal relational
  139. External environmental
  140. Performance
    task accomplishment
  141. Development
    maintenance of team
  142. Team performance
    is the quality of decision making hte ability to implement decisions the outcomes of team work in terms of problems solved and work completed and finally the quality of institutional leadership provided by the team
  143. Team development
    is the cohesiveness of the team and the ability of group members to satisfy their own needs while working effectively with other team members

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