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define : tachypnea
Tachypnea (or "tachypnoea") (Greek: "rapid breathing") is characterized by rapid breathing.It is not identical with hyperventilation - tachypnea may be necessary for a sufficient gas-exchange of the body, for example after exercise, in which case it is not hyperventilation.
bradypnoea refers to an abnormally slow breathing rate. The rate at which bradypnea is diagnosed depends upon the age of the patien
Apnea, apnoea, or apnœa (Greek: απνοια, from α-, privative, πνεειν, to breathe) is a term for suspension of external breathing. During apnea there is no movement of the muscles of respiration and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged. Depending on the patency (openness) of the airways there may or may not be a flow of gas between the lungs and the environment; gas exchange within the lungs and cellular respiration is not affected. Apnea can be voluntarily achieved (e.g., "holding one's breath"),drug-induced (e.g., opiate toxicity), mechanically induced (e.g., strangulation or choking), or it can occur as a consequence of neurological disease or trauma.
Hyperpnea is increased depth of breathing when required to meet demand, as during or following exercise or when the body lacksoxygen (hypoxia), for instance in high altitude or as a result of anaemia.Hyperpnea may also occur as a result of sepsis, and is usually a sign of the beginning of refractory sepsis.
Orthopnea or orthopnoea (Greek from ortho, straight + pnoia, breath) is shortness of breath (dyspnea) which occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair. It is the opposite of platypnea.It is commonly measured according to the number of pillows needed to prop the patient up to enable breathing (Example: "3 pillow orthopnea").
In medicine, hyperventilation (or overbreathing) is the state of breathing faster and/or deeper than necessary. It can result from a psychological state such as a panic attack, from a physiological condition such as metabolic acidosis, or can be brought about voluntarily.Hyperventilation can, but does not necessarily always cause symptoms such as numbness or tingling in the hands, feet and lips,lightheadedness, dizziness, headache, chest pain, slurred speech, nervous laughter, and sometimes fainting, particularly when accompanied by the Valsalva maneuver.Counterintuitively, such effects are not precipitated by the sufferer's lack of oxygen or air. Rather, the hyperventilation itself reduces the carbon dioxide concentration of the bloodto below its normal level because one is expiring more carbon dioxide than being produced in the body, thereby raising the blood's pH value (making it more alkaline), initiating constriction of the blood vessels which supply the brain, and preventing the transport of oxygen and other molecules necessary for the function of the nervous system.
define Cheyne-Stokes respiration
Cheyne-Stokes respiration (pronounced /ˈtʃeɪnˈstoʊks/) is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by oscillation of ventilation between apnea and tachypnea with a crescendo-decrescendo pattern in the depth of respirations, to compensate for changing serumpartial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing are known together as Central sleep apnoea syndrome (CSAS) if they occur during an individual's sleep, not due to damage of the respiratory centres..
define chronic obstructive breathing
caused by chronic obstructive disorders, such as bronchitis and emphysema. these often come together and result in the breaking down of alveolar sacs in the lungs making for ineffective gas exchange
In the human respiratory system, eupnea (Greek eupnoia; from eu, well + pnoia, breath) is normal, good, unlaboured ventilation, sometimes known as quiet breathing or resting respiration. In eupnea, expiration employs only the elastic recoil of the lungs.
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