Urinary System 4.8.13

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Urinary System 4.8.13
2013-04-08 13:34:06
Bio 256 Unit exam

Unit 4 exam
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  1. Kidneys
    clean blood, produce urine
  2. paired ureters
    transport urine (kidneys to bladder)
  3. urinary bladder
    provides urine temporary storage
  4. urethra
    transports urine- bladder to out of body
  5. Kidney Functions
    • filter 200 liters of blood/ day
    • entire bodys plasma volume 60times/ day
    • homeostasis
  6. Homeostasis
    regulate volume and chemical makeup of blood

    • controls urine volume to save or eliminate water
    • maintain osmotic balance
    • maintain pH
  7. filtrate
    • no cells
    • contains plasma components except protein 
    • reabsorbed

    • nutrients
    • water
    • essentialions
  8. urine contains
    • water
    • metabolic wastes 
    • unneeded substances
  9. 3 processes to adjust blood composition
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • secretion
  10. Nephrons
    structural and functional units of the kidney
  11. To Make urine
    • glomerulus and capsule to 
    • proximal convoluted tubule to 
    • loop of henle to 
    • distal convoluted tubule to 
    • collecting duct to 
    • renal pelvis
  12. Afferent
    toward glomerulus
  13. efferent
    away from glomerulus
  14. Glomerulus
    • tuft of capillaries associated with nephron
    • filters blood coming from an afferent arteriole
  15. Glomerular Capsule
    • cup shaped end of renal tubule
    • one surrounds each glomerulus
    • collects plasma filtrate
  16. Fenestrated glomerular endothelium
    filters blood to transport solute-rich filtrate to pass from blood into glomerular capsule
  17. proximal convoluted tubule
    • cuboidal epithelium and numerous microvilli and mitochondria 
    • reabsorb water and solutes from filtrate into peritubular capillaries
  18. Loop of Henle
    descending limb
    thick segment similar to proximal convoluted tubule
  19. Loop of Henle
    Ascending limb
    thin segment( simple squamous epithelium) and then back to thick segment (cuboidal to columnar epithelium)
  20. Distal convoluted tubule
    cuboidal cells w/out microvilli

    • function more in secretion than reabsorption
    • Active transport of ions in response t endocrine system hormones
  21. Collecting tubules have what two cell types
    • intercalated cells
    • principal cells
  22. Intercalated cells
    • cuboidal cells with icrvilli
    • function in body acid-base balance 
    • located in the collecting tubules
  23. principal cells
    • cuboidal cells without microvilli
    • help maintain bodys water and salt balance
    • located in the collecting tubules
  24. Cortical nephrons
    • most nephrons
    • located mostly in cortex 
    • produce dilute urine
  25. Justamedullary nephrons
    • glomerulus at cortex/medulla junction 
    • loops of henle- deep into medulla
    • produce concentrated urine
  26. Two capillary beds in every nephron
    • glomerular capillaries
    • pertibular capillaries