Introduction to Computer Systems

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Introduction to Computer Systems
2013-04-08 14:26:16
Introduction Computer Fundamentals Systems Chapter One

Introduction to Computer Fundamentals: Introduction to Computer Systems Chapter One
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  1. First computer


    *could do basic tasks like, addition, subtraction*
  2. What is a Computer?
    An electronic device that accepts data input.
  3. Mechanical clock
    First closed system

    *used to calculate time of day*
  4. Mathematics
    Used to calculate complex calculations.*Algorithms*
  5. Blaise Pascal
    First real calculator
  6. Gottfried van Libnitz

    Could make more complex calculations*Square roots*
  7. Punch cards
    Used for reading cards
  8. Difference machine
    Made by Charles Babbage
  9. Hollerith codes
    Used to collect statistical data
  10. First Generation (1951-1958)
    Univac started the trend

    • Used vacuum tubes *huge, used for processing*Magnetic drum *Primary internal storage*
    • Limited main storage capacity
    • Slow input/output *use of punch cards*
    • Low level symbolic programming language Heat and maintenance problems
    • Huge is size.
  11. First  generation computer used for
    Used for payroll and records
  12. Example of first generation computer
    IBM 650 Univac 1
  13. UNIVAC
    Universal automatic computer
  14. Second Generation (1954-1964)
    • Use of transistors for internal operations, which minimized the heating problem.
    • Magnetic core*Primary internal storage, electric current magnetizing the core.*Increased storage capacity
    • *Supplemented by external magnetic tapes.*
    • Faster input/output*Tape orientation,devices connected directly to computer.*
    • Higher programming language*COBOL, FORTAN*

    Batch oriented application *Billing, payroll processing
  15. COBOL
    Common Business-Oriented Language
  16. FORTAN
    Formula translator
  17. Example of second generation computer
    IBM 1401
  18. Third  Generation (1965-1970)
    • Integrated circuit
    • Magnetic core and solid state
    • Higher programming language
    • Emergence of mini computers
    • Remote processing and time sharing
    • Operating systems

    • Used for
    • Market forecast, credit card billing
  19. Example of second generation computer
    IBM 360 NCR 395 Burroughs B6500
  20. Fourth generation
    • Large scale integrated circuits
    • Increased storage and speed
    • Modular design and compatibility between equipment
    • Special application software
    • Versatility of input/output devices
    • Increased use of mini computers
    • Introduction of micro processors and micro computers

    Used for simulation, electronic fund transfer,home computers
  21. Classification by size

    • Micro-Computers (Personal Computers)
    • Mini-Computers (Midrange)
    • Mainframe
    • Super Computers
  22. Micro-Computers (Personal Computers)
    Named from micro-processor*Desktops, laptops*Mobile devices, PSPs, Handhelds
  23. Mini-Computers (Midrange)
    Multi user*mainframes* SPARC

    • *mini computer is a computer that sits in between the range of a
    • mainframe and a personal computer, or microcomputer. The mini computer
    • is still a multi user system like a mainframe but more compact.*
  24. Mainframe
    are computers used primarily by corporate and governmental organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and transaction processing.
  25. Super Computers
    Intense numerical calculations

    *weather forecasting, fluid dynamics, nuclear simulation
  26. Classification by function
    • Server
    • Workstation
    • Information appliances
    • Embedded computers
  27. Server
    Dedicated to provide a service

    *a server is a physical computer (a computer hardware system) dedicated to run one or more services (as a host)*
  28. Workstation
    • A workstation is a high-end microcomputer
    • designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to
    • be used by one person at a time
  29. Information appliances
    Designed to perform a specific user friendly task.*PSP, IPAD*
  30. Embedded computers
    Part of a computer or machine. Or Embedded computers are incorporated into other devices, rather than being stand alone computers

    *Execute program in a machine, normally stored in nonvolatile memory.*DVD*
  31. Importance of a Computer
    • Home and Personal uses
    • Business uses
    • Educational uses
    • Communication uses
  32. Home and Personal uses
    • Disabled can do normal activities
    • Shopping online
    • Games
    • Work from home
  33. Business uses
    • Information storage *database*
    • Ordering and tracking resources is easier
    • Virtual meetings
  34. Educational uses
    • Online research materials
    • Quick correspondence on research
  35. Communication uses
    Round the world communication made easy
  36. Computer disadvantages
    • Negates social life if not balanced
    • May have negative effects on your eye sight
    • May cause pimples and wrinkles
    • Distraction from studies
    • May cause weight gain
  37. Computer advantages
    • Helps automate tasks that are impossible to do manually
    • Organize data and info
    • More computing power than an ordinary human
    • Makes work easier
    • Helps communication
    • Find info (Google)
  38. Characteristics of a Computer
    • Speed
    • Accuracy
    • Versatility
    • Reliability
    • Power of recall
    • No IQ
    • Common data usage
    • Diligence
    • Electronic
    • Storage
    • Automation
    • Convenience
  39. Speed
    Very fast, able to do complex tasks within seconds without any of the human limitation
  40. Accuracy
    Consistently accurate
  41. Versatility

    Able to do multiple takes at once

    *play music, calculate figures*
  42. Reliability
    Don’t make mistakes on their own accord.
  43. Power of recall
    They recall anything almost indefinitely
  44. No IQ
    Is zero, only able to follow instructions
  45. Common data usage
    Multiple usage of same files
  46. Diligence
    Able to work long hour without tiring or making errors consistently
  47. Storage
    They have huge capacity for data storage
  48. Automation
    Can perform selected tasks on their on
  49. Convenience
    Easy access to info
  50. Electronic
    Uses electronics*Transistors, diodes