Science Ch. 2/3

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kshockey
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21218
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Science Ch. 2/3
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2010-05-29 21:39:11
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Seventh Grade
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Wednesday, June 2, 2010
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  1. Describe Ursa Major.
    • Nickname: Great Bear.
    • Story: Known for being in the shape of an old-fashioned plow and ladle.
  2. Describe Taurus.
    • Nickname: Bull.
    • Story: Zeus disguised as a bull who rode off and had children with Europa.
  3. Parallax
    A way to measure the distance to stars.
  4. Light Year
    Distance light travels in a year.
  5. What are the stages of a star's life?
    Protostar (creation), main sequence (life), red giant or supergiant (pre-death), massive stars go to a super nova, very high mass stars become black holes, high mass stars become neutron stars. Low mass stars become white dwarves then they die out and become black dwarves.
  6. Universe
    All of space and everything and everything in it.
  7. Describe Polaris.
    North pole star.
  8. Describe Sirius.
    Brightest star.
  9. Describe Alpha Centauri.
    Part of a triple star system. Includes Alpha Centauri A, Alpha B, and Proxima Centauri.
  10. What are the 3 types of galaxies?
    Elliptical (no arms, rotates slowly), Spiral (normal - arms project from center, barred - arms project from end), and Irregular (no set shape).
  11. What are the 2 types of spiral galaxies?
    Normal and Barred.
  12. Galaxy
    Billions of stars - grouped by shape.
  13. What chemical change takes place when a star uses energy?
    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen molecules to helium molecules.
  14. Solar System
    The sun and everything that orbits it.
  15. Describe the constellation Ursa Major.
    • Nickname: Great Bear.
    • Story: Known for being in the shape of an old-fashioned plow and ladle.
  16. Describe the constellation Taurus.
    • Nickname: Bull.
    • Story: Zeus disguised as a bull who rode off and had children with Europa.
  17. Describe the constellation Draco.
    • Nickname: Dragon.
    • Story: Had 100 heads. Had to gaurd the golden apples.
  18. Describe the constellation Auriga.
    • Nickname: Charioteer.
    • Story: Son of Hephaestus, he was brought up as a charioteer by Athene.
  19. Describe the constellation Andromeda.
    • Nickname: Princess.
    • Story: Andromeda was the daughter of Queen Cassiopeia and King Cepheus. She told the beautiful sea nymphs she was prettier than them so the chained her to rocks.
  20. Describe the constellation Cassiopeia.
    • Nickname: Queen.
    • Story: Queen of Ethiopia, mother of Andromeda. Had to sacrifice Andromeda because Cassiopeia said she was more beautiful than the sea nymphs. Shaped as a W.
  21. Describe the constellation Gemini.
    • Nickname: Twins.
    • Story: Children of Cygnus and Leda. Grew up together and each had great talents.
  22. Describe the constellation Orion.
    • Nickname: Peacock.
    • Story: Son of Poseidon and Eurayale. A hunter that always had his 2 dogs with him.
  23. Describe the constellation Canis Major.
    • Nickname: Great Dog.
    • Story: One of the dogs that accompanies Orion and spends most of his time chasing the hare.
  24. Describe the constellation Bootes.
    • Nickname: Herdsman.
    • Story: Sometimes referred to the Bear Driver for chasing the Great and Little Bears across the sky.
  25. Describe the constellation Leo.
    • Nickname: Lion.
    • Story: Leo was the first lion that Hercules fought.
  26. Describe the constellation Virgo.
    • Nickname: Maiden.
    • Story: She is the goddess of agriculture and ferility. She is also the mother of Persephone.
  27. Describe the constellation Cygnus.
    • Nickname: Swan.
    • Story: Cygnus is thought to be Zeus in disguise.
  28. Describe the constellation Lyra.
    • Nickname: Harp.
    • Story: Hermes harp that he gave to Apollo made of tortoise shell and cow guts.
  29. Describe the constellation Scorpio.
    • Nickname: Scorpio.
    • Story: Killed the famous hunter, Orion.
  30. Describe the constellation Sagittarius.
    • Nickname: Archer.
    • Story: A satyr who invented archery. His father was the pipe-playing god Pan.
  31. What does the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram do?
    It shows the relationship between star surface temperature and brightness.
  32. Binary Stars
    Two stars that orbit each other.
  33. Constellations
    88 star pictures named by Greeks, Romans, and Native Americans.
  34. Name the new and old Pole Stars. What is the significance of the Pole star?
    • New: Polaris, directly above the pole of the Earth. Used for navigation, center of all star picutures.
    • Old: Thuban.
  35. What is the second most easily found constellation?
    • 1. Orion
    • 2. Ursa Major
    • 3. Cassiopeia
  36. In what section of the sky does Sagittarius lie?
    Zodiac
  37. What constellation joins Andromeda on the south?
    Pegasus
  38. What is the name of the red star that makes the shoulder of the hunter?
    Betelgeuse - closest supergiant.
  39. How many years does it take light from Arcturus to reach us?
    40 light years
  40. What are the two bright stars that mark the head of the twins?
    Castor, Pollux.
  41. What is the dog star? If the star is directly over our heads in the winter, why do we refer to August as the dog days?
    Sirius (Canis Major). Brightest star from Earth. Really hot in August when dog star is directly over Egypt in August.
  42. How does our sun differ from most other main sequence stars?
    It is the only star known to have a planet that supports life.
  43. How do solar flares affect Earth?
    They create auroras.
  44. How do you determine what type of star a star is?
    Look at the size of the picture.
  45. How do you determine the youngest, oldest, hottest, and coldest stars?
    Look at the color.
  46. How do you determine the brightest, dimmest, and can not see without a telescope stars?
    Look at the magnitude.
  47. How do you determine the closest and farthest stars?
    Light years.
  48. How do you transfer light years to miles?
    Multiply by 6 trillion.
  49. Absolute Magnitude.
    A star's brightness as if it were a standard distance.
  50. Apparent Magnitude
    The brightness of a star as seen from Earth.
  51. Star Properties
    200,000 named, 2,000 can be seen with naked eye.
  52. Star Size
    • Small (dwarf).
    • Medium (giant).
    • Large (supergiant).
  53. Star Color/Temperature
    • Blue (35,000)
    • White (15,000)
    • Yellow (6,000)
    • Orange (5,000)
    • Red (3,000)
  54. Star Magnitude
    • 1 - brightest (1M)
    • 2 - next (2M)
    • 6 - last (6M) cannot be seen without telescope
  55. Star Motion
    • Apparent - seems to move across by.
    • Actual - you will not see.

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