Lifespan Development-Adolescence

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Anonymous
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212238
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Lifespan Development-Adolescence
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2013-04-08 18:31:09
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lifespan development adolescence psychology developmental westmont college gurney
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Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Test 4/9/13
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  1. Kohlberg Stage 1
    • Pre-Conventional Level
    • Obedience and Punishment: hedonism
    • Individualism and Instrumentalism: what's in it for me?
  2. Kohlberg Stage 2
    • Coventional Level
    • Good boy, nice girl: doing what gains the approval of others
    • Law and Order: I have duties and must abide in them so there isn't chaos
  3. Kohlberg Stage 3
    • Post-Conventional Level
    • Social Contract: rules are needed for social order but they shouldn't be obeyed blindly and might need change
    • Universal Ethical Principle: action is judged right if it is consistent with our personally developed ethical principles. There are no overarching moral rules/codes
  4. Heinz Dilemma
    Heinz wife was near death and a pharmacist had marked up a drug from 20k to 200k. Heinz could only raise 50k and asked pharmacist if he could pay that now and the rest later. Pharmacist said no. Heinz contemplated stealing the drug. Is this right or wrong?
  5. Hormonal Feedback Loop
    • age 5-9 adrenal glands start to work
    • Hypothalamus signals pituitary gland to start producing hormones
  6. Puberty changes in females
    additional fat, hips widen, reproductive organs, breast growth,
  7. Puberty changes in males
    growth spurt, muscles, reproductive organs, increase sex drive, hair, deeper voice
  8. Onset of Puberty
    • genetically related
    • girls start earlier (10) versus boys later (13) 
    • high stress environment: earlier start
    • malnourished: later start
    • overweight: earlier start
  9. Effects of Early Onset
    • females: lower self esteem, likely to be sexually active earlier on, ridicule from peers, can attractive negative attention from older boys because they look older
    • males: more popular, athletic, aggressive, popular with girls, more likely to abuse the law and drugs, poorer school performance, higher self-concept
  10. Effects of Late Onset
    • females: overlooked in dating area, lower social status, fewer emotional problems later on 
    • males: social life might suffer, tend to be more depressed/anxious later on in life
  11. Sexual Activity in Puberty
    • range from flirting to promiscuous behavior
    • body says yes but often society says no
    • boys/girls report the same sexual activity--in the past boys reported more
    • currently less pregnancies and higher use of birth control
  12. Dangers of Sexual Activity in Puberty
    • earlier development: more likely to engage in sexual activities
    • most pregnancies of teens don't happen in a marriage
    • single mothers also have to work and childcare is difficult
    • STDs are more widespread now
    • sexual abuse is most likely to occur during puberty
  13. Common nutritional deficiencies
    • iron, calcium zinc
    • adolescents often make their own food choices now
    • these affect muscle growth and bone density
    • one reason for poor nutrition is anxiety about body image
  14. Body Image
    • girls: pressure to be thin
    • boys: pressure to be strong and tall
    • they want to be more attractive to the opposite sex
  15. Diagnostic Criteria for eating disorders
    • anorexia: miss menstruation, 15% underweight
    • bulimia: binging and purging for 2 weeks, often of normal weight
  16. Rates of Brain Development
    • limbic system matures before prefrontal cortex
    • limbic system: emotions and spontaneous reactions, impulses
    • prefrontal cortex: judgment and planning
    • this can make adolescents impulsive and overtaken by emotions
    • adolescents often have very quick reaction times
  17. Amygdala Hijack
    emotions take over every part of your body/brain
  18. Benefits of Brain development
    • high myelination=quick reaction time
    • Enhanced dopamine activity: they think everything is cool, but they might think things that are bad are cool 
    • Synaptic growth: helps adolescents become more open to new experiences
    • Brain maturity at age 25
  19. Piaget Formal Operational Stage
    • Begins around 12 (some say 15)
    • Hypothetical thought: if, then thoughts/reasoning 
    • Deductive Reasoning: top/down reasoning, general theories applied to specific situations
    • Inductive Reasoning: bottom/up reasoning, using specific situations to draw general conclusions
  20. Dual Process Model
    • easier to follow gut instinct than it is to be logical
    • First Process: emotional intuitive thought, the "gut feeling", subjective
    • Second Process: Analytical thought, more systematic and objective
    • once people reach a decision emotionally, they often don't change their mind
  21. Questioning Rules
    • increased arguments
    • tend to challenge parents
    • ability to reason abstractly gives adolescents an edge on this
  22. Egocentrism
    • self-absorption
    • over dramatizing everything that  goes wrong
    • tend to not consider how their actions affect others (drinking and driving could hurt someone else)
    • religious beliefs are egocentric (i use God when I need Him)
  23. Imaginary Audiences
    • everyone is watching me
    • I am the focus of everyone's attention 
    • heightened self-awareness
    • this stems from ego-centrism
  24. Personal Fables
    • our experiences are unique and isolated to the present
    • we believe no one understands us
    • we think our experiences are more wonderful or more horrible than anyone else's
  25. Invincibility Complex
    • nothing can harm me even if it defeats a normal human being 
    • negative consequences of behavior won't apply 
    • leads to more risk taking behaviors
  26. Technology and Cyberspace
    • less of a digital gap now: most people have access to technology
    • technology is now an extension of the person
  27. Advantages of Technology
    • accelerates learning
    • access to information is easier and faster
    • marginalized teens feel they have a place to express themselves
    • teens feel they are less inhibited over the internet (can be good and bad)
  28. Dangers of Technology
    • cyber bullying
    • no inhibition: kids will say more over the internet 
    • secrecy: websites about anorexia, etc., share personal info without thinking about consequences
  29. Middle School
    • learning slows down because of focus on puberty
    • decrease in academic achievement
    • increase in behavioral problems 
    • multiple teachers=less face time. not good for this age
    • huge school change is not good at this time
  30. High School
    • promotes students analytic ability
    • trending towards more rigorous education
  31. College Bound
    • 1/3 US students still don't attend college 
    • college diploma correlates to employment, health (lower risk of cognitive diseases), life satisfaction
  32. 4 Factors in Academic Achievement
    • family
    • school 
    • personal traits
    • SES
  33. John Ogbu's work on education
    • minority groups might perceive school success as unimportant 
    • they feel it won't pay off because of prejudices in the workplace
    • internal vs. external locus of control (minorities often view as external)
  34. Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • knowing who you are (identity) versus liking who you are (self-concept) 
    • diffuse vs. secure identity: what am i like in different contexts
    • moratorium: postponing making social decisions, like going to college
  35. 4 areas of identity formation (Erickson)
    • Religious Identity: take on religious views of parents but expressed in different ways
    • Political Identity: take on parents views; teens who aren't interested become adults who aren't interested
    • Vocational Identity: not as relevant anymore because we often change identities
    • Sexual Identity: may have been replaced with gender identity which is more socially constructed
  36. Signs of depression
    hopelessness/lethargy lasting 2+ weeks, worthlessness, anger/irritability, academic decline, concentration issues, destructive behavior, problems with friends, suicide talk, appetite and sleep pattern changes, withdrawal
  37. Rumination
    • repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences
    • common in teens as a whole, but can lead to depression
  38. Depression Facts
    • biological and environmental
    • 2 million teens in US suffer from depression
    • increase in bipolar and depression diagnoses 
    • teens feel they can't talk to parents/etc.
  39. Warning Signs of Suicide
    suicide talk, preoccupied by death and dying, taking care of unfinished business, giving away possessions, excessive risks, increase alcohol or drug use,
  40. Risk Factors of Suicide
    previous attempts, close friend or family member who has attempted or committed, social isolation, drug/alcohol abuse, exposure to violence at home, access to handguns
  41. Suicide Facts
    • more girls attempt, more boys succeed 
    • boys take more violent route
    • cluster suicide are common 
    • men are shamed if the attempt but fail more than women are
    • girls ruminate but men withdraw
    • latinas are more likely to attempt/commit suicide
    • 23 attempts per 1 completion
  42. Helping Suicidal friends/family
    • it's OKAY to name it
    • don't take it on alone--seek professional help
    • listen
    • give stabilizing messages (telling them that this too shall pass) 
    • go with them to make calls for help
  43. Peer Power
    • peers encourage: can be positive or negative
    • deviancy training: teaching other how to steal, break the law, etc.
  44. Groups of Friends
    • reference group: any group of people whom one compares themselves to
    • clique: group that makes up close friends who are loyal to one another and often exclude outsides
    • crowd: larger group of kids that have something in common but aren't necessarily friends (ie school)
  45. Rejected Adolescents
    teenagers who are actively disliked by their peers and it is obvious
  46. Neglected Adolescents
    • receiving relatively little attention from peers 
    • neutral
  47. under socialized deliquents
    • raised in families with little discipline or with incredibly harsh parents
    • neglectful parenting style
  48. Sexualization and Objectification
    • your body is who you are
    • girls treat themselves as an object of someone else's desire
  49. Dexter Dunfrey development of opposite sex friendships
    • 1. group of friends of the same sex who avoid contact with opposite sex
    • 2. loose association of boys and girls, public interaction
    • 3. Smaller mixed sex groups
    • 4. formation of couples with private intimacy
  50. Learning about sex
    • friends: most common, boys brag but girls conceal 
    • parents: awkward, parents would generally prefer for it to be taught in school
    • school: more anatomical  
    • media: skewed views of sex
  51. Family Relationships
    • adolescents benefit from increased autonomy but still need parents
    • mostly bickering and not serious arguments 
    • most teens report love and respect of parents
    • four aspects of closeness: communication, support, connectedness, control (first two are crucial)

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