Lifespan Development-Emerging Adulthood

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Lifespan Development-Emerging Adulthood
2013-04-08 20:30:48
lifespan development developmental psychology emerging adulthood westmont college psych gurney

Emerging Adulthood portion of the test 4/9/13
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  1. Life Long Delinquency
    • life course persistent offender: criminal activity began in adolescence but persists through life and can worsen
    • adolescence limited offender: a person whose criminal activity stops by 21
  2. Factors of Delinquency
    • Neurological: attention span, low IQ, hyperactivity
    • Contextual: domestic violence, low SES, deviant friends
  3. Drug Use in Teens
    • starts as early as ten
    • widespread use ages 10-25 then decreases
    • using prior to 18 correlates with use after 25
    • boys do more drugs than girls
    • most us adolescents aren't regular users
    • 20% have never tried drugs
  4. Effects of Drugs on Teens
    • Tobacco: impacts growth, damages heart, lungs, brain, and reproductive system
    • Alcohol: impacts memory and self control, serious consequences for alcoholics, most frequently abused, does permanent brain damage
    • Marijuana: impacts memory, language, and motivation; can be addictive, more likely to drop out of school
  5. Prevention of Drug use
    • generational forgetting: the current generation forgets what the prior learned
    • drug use starts social and then gets progressive
    • scare tactics might increase drug use (invincibility complex)
  6. Strength of Body in Emerging
    • good health, time for child bearing and physical labor, full height at beginning of stage, full brain at the end
    • lung capacity, steady heart, strong muscles, in balance, good time to go through stress
  7. Senescence
    process of aging where body becomes less strong and efficient starts at the end of emerging adulthood
  8. Sexual Reproductive System
    • high sex drive
    • low likelihood for infertility
    • birth has minimal complications
    • sex hormones peak around 20
    • christians/mormons get married young because sex drive is so strong
  9. Diathesis-stress model
    • interactions of genetics (diathesis) and environment/life events trigger psychopathology
    • genetics loads the gun and environment triggers it
  10. Mood Disorders
    • most common are bipolar and major depression
    • progression gets more severe as we age
    • 2+ weeks is the change from situational to major depression
    • even if these people want to be alone it is best to acknowledge it and be with others
  11. Anxiety Disorders
    • 25% of people under 25 struggle
    • OCD, PTSD, generalized anxiety
    • worldwide more common than depression (but not in US)
  12. Schizophrenia
    • 1% have it in the US 
    • symptoms begin in adolescence but it is often diagnosed at this stage
    • delusions, hallucinations, etc.
  13. Benefits of Exercise
    • lower blood pressure, increase heart and lung strength
    • helps with mood disorders (first line of defense is eating, exercising, sleeping) 
    • prevents some major diseases 
    • those who aren't fit now will have problems later on
  14. Edgework
    • choosing occupations or activities that involve a degree of risk or danger
    • more willingness to take risks at this age
    • enjoyment of danger (by carrying guns, not wearing seatbelts, etc.)
  15. Drug Abuse vs. Addiction
    • abuse: ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs biological or psychological well-being
    • addiction: dependence on a drug to the extent that not taking it would cause psychological or biological withdrawal symptoms
  16. Social Norms Approach
    students overestimate how much their peers are actually drinking/doing drugs and therefore think there is more pressure to do them themselves
  17. Postformal Thought (the "5th" stage)
    • extends adolescent thinking
    • more practical thinking and more flexible in our thinking
    • dialectical thinking: we can look at two different views of an issue and recognize their validity without agreeing 
    • less concern with absolute right and wrong
  18. Time Management
    is a struggle at the beginning but we become good at it later on in this stage
  19. Delayed Discounting
    • tendency to ignore future consequences and rewards and prefer immediate gratification
    • i.e. going to the beach now but having to pull an all-nighter later
  20. Cognitive Flexibility
    • we can be adaptive in our thoughts
    • recognize there are multiple views in an issue
    • we can combine sub/obj thought
    • valuing other perspectives even if you don't agree 
    • it's still important to involve emotions but still be intellectual about things
  21. Stereotype Threat
    • one's appearance or behavior will be misread by others to confirm stereotypes
    • the mere possibility of being stereotyped is enough to cause anxiety and crack under pressure
  22. Dialectic Thought
    • Thesis: statement of belief
    • Antithesis: opposing view of thesis
    • Synthesis: ability to integrate the two
    • the idea that every truth has an opposite and that by recognizing this we can better weigh the arguments and possibilities
  23. Morality of Care
    • Carol Gilligan student of Kohlberg
    • women are looking more at relationships in moral decisions
  24. Morality of Justice
    • Kohlberg
    • males emphasize justice over compassion and relationships 
    • more black/white decisions
  25. Measuring Moral Growth
    • Defining Issues Test
    • way to measure moral thinking by having test taker rank possible solutions to dilemmas 
    • age more than gender plays a difference
  26. James Fowler Stages of Faith
    • Stage 1 Intuitive Projective: faith is magical, illogical, and filled with fantasy. ages 3-7
    • Stage 2 Mythic Literal: take myths and stories of religion literally, God rewards those who follow and punish those who don't. Ages 7-11 and onward.
    • Stage 3 Synthetic Conventional: valuing what feels right over what makes sense. a 'conformist' stage. 
    • Stage 4 Individual Reflect: detachment from values of culture and from approval of others. Faith becomes an active commitment
    • Stage 5 Conjunctive Faith: incorporates both powerful emotional ideas and rational conscious values. people are okay with contradiction. 
    • Stage 6 Universalizing faith: vision of universal compassion and justice often based on a transformational experience. others see them as saintly or foolish.
  27. Changes in college contexts
    • student demographics: college is no longer just for elite, more women than men, more minorities than ever before 
    • parent income is still highest predictor of going to college
  28. Personality changes
    • rising self-esteem and happiness
    • life transitions aid self esteem
    • personality isn't as fixed as we once thought (the bulk stays the same though)
    • become less self-centered and more caring for others
  29. Gender and Friendship
    • men/men friendships: tend to share more activities and interests and talk less about emotions, demand less of friendships, tolerate more
    • women/women friendships: more intimate but not necessarily better, more women think they are incompatible with college roommate than men
  30. 3 Types of Love
    • Robert Sternberg
    • passion: 'falling in love', intense onslaught characterized by excitement and euphoria. hormones. doesn't have to involve getting to know someone
    • Intimacy: knowing someone well, emotionally and sexually
    • Commitment: gradual growth through decisions to be together and care for each other. beneficial to be around other people who are encouraging
  31. Choice Overload
    • having too many choices that thoughtful decision making becomes impossible
    • social media and its effects on romance
  32. homogamy and heterogamy
    • homogamy: marriage of two individuals who are similar in interests, goals, status, etc.
    • heterogamy: marriage of two individuals who are dissimilar in these areas
  33. Social Homogamy
    similarity of a couple's leisure interests and role preferences
  34. What increases long-term commitment
    • communication
    • social homogamy
    • financial security
    • ending an addiction or illness
  35. demand/withdraw interaction
    a situation where one partner wants to address an issue and one refuses which results in one being insistent in talk while the other cuts short the conversation
  36. Situational Couple Violence
    • fighting bought on by situation and not deeper personality problems
    • often both partners are abusers and victims
  37. intimate terrorism
    • violent and demeaning for of abuse where the victim is frightened to fight back or seek help
    • physical and psychological harm
  38. Sunk Cost fallacy
    • if someone has already spent money time or effort on a goal, they should continue to do so even if it is failing
    • sending more troops into a losing battle 
    • trying to fix a car that is a lemon
  39. Base Rate Neglect
    • a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior/event when making decisions 
    • a person might bet on a lucky lottery number even though it isn't actually more likely to come up