Endocrine System

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hannahshort
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212280
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Endocrine System
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2013-04-23 20:15:46
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Endocrine
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Test 3
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  1. responsible for homeostasis
    endocrine and nervous system
  2. types of communication
    • direct
    • paracrine
    • synaptic
    • endocrine
  3. direct communication
    • neighboring cells in direct contact with each other, communicate by the exchange of ions and molecules, through gap junctions in the cell membrane
    • electrical transmission of impulse
    • extremely small distances
    • (very few)
  4. paracrine communication
    • uses chemical messengers to carry info from cell to cell within the same tissue
    • occurs over small distances
  5. synaptic communication
    • a specialized cell (neuron) releases a neurotransmitter very close to the target cell (effector) at the synapse
    • effects usually short-lived
    • (most)
  6. endocrine communication
    • release of hormones into circulatory system where they are carried to the target cells, tissues, or organs
    • targets have specialized receptor sites to which the hormone must bind before it exerts its effects
    • a single hormone may have effects on multiple tissues/organs
    • long-acting
    • cover massive distances
  7. endocrine vs. nervous response
    • endocrine= slower response, long-acting
    • nervous= rapid response, short-lived
  8. primary producers of hormones
    • pituitary gland (1)
    • parathyroid gland (2)
    • thyroid gland (2)
    • adrenal gland (2)
    • kidney (2)
    • ovary (2)
    • pancreas (1)
    • testis (2)
  9. is the thyroid gland unilateral or bilateral in a cow?
    unilateral
  10. tropic hormone
    hormone has only one organ it acts on

    (and that target organ is the only one with receptors for that hormone)
  11. hormone
    chemical messenger released by a tissue which is carried in circulation to reach specific target cells in other tissues around the body
  12. hormones derived from amino acids
    similar in structure to amino acids

    epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroid hormones,melanin
  13. peptide hormones
    • antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin (short chains)
    • growth hormone, prolactin (longer chains)
    • follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormones (amino acid chain with carbohydrate molecule attached:glycoprotein based hormones)
  14. hormones derived from lipids
    • 2 groups
    • similar in structure to cholesterol: steroid hormones
    • derived from the essential fatty acid arachidonic acid: eicosanoids
  15. steroid hormones include
    • reproductive hormones (estrogens, testosterone)
    • glucocorticoids (released by adrenal gland)
  16. steroid hormones
    • transported in the blood bound to carrier proteins rather than free molecules
    • remain in circulation longer than other hormones
  17. corticosteroids
    synthetic glucocorticoid

    (have on shelf to inject)
  18. glucocorticoid
    pure steroid hormones produced by adrenal gland
  19. hormones may
    activate, or deactivate an existing enzyme within any cell or affect the rate of synthesis of a structural protein or enzyme
  20. hormones usually released in 
    areas that have a large capillary network so they can quickly enter circulation, where they will circulate either freely or bound to a carrier protein
  21. stimulus that trigger secretion of hormones
    • change in extracellular fluid (hypoglycemic)
    • secretion or removal of another hormone
    • release of neurotransmitter that affects the endocrine gland
  22. majority of hormones controlled by this mechanism
    Negative Feedback

    *discussion question*
  23. TSH
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
    • thyrotropin

    (stimulates the production of the thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland)
  24. antidiuretic's purpose
    • to prevent dehydration
    • reabsorbs water and sodium

    (dehydrated do not urinate very much bc the body is reabsorbing any water it can)
  25. thermostat of the body
    hypothalamus
  26. hypothalamus
    • secretes regulatory hormones that control the hormonal activity of the anterior pituitary gland, affecting the activity of thyroid gland, cortex of adrenal gland, and reproductive organs
    • autonomic nervous control over hormones secreted by the medulla of adrenal glands
    • also acts as a endocrine gland itself by releasing hormones into circulation via the posterior pituitary gland
  27. hormones in posterior pituitary produced in
    hypothalamus (then passed down/stored in posterior pituitary gland)
  28. pituitary gland
    • or hypophysis
    • two parts: anterior and posterior
  29. posterior pituitary gland names
    • posterior lobe
    • pars nervosa
    • neurohypophysis 
  30. anterior pituitary gland names
    • anterior lobe
    • adenohypophysis
  31. 3 divisions of anterior pituitary
    • pars tuberalis
    • pars intermedia
    • pars distalis
  32. adenohypophysis
    • (anterior pituitary)
    • formed from Rathkes Pouch-a structure derived from mucous membranes of the embryonic pharynx
  33. neurohypophysis
    • (posterior pituitary)
    • originated from embryonic brain
    • connected to brain by pituitary stalk
    • allows for production of posterior pituitary hormones to be produced in the hypothalamus and transported via nerves to posterior lobe to be stored and later used
  34. ACTH
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • adrenocorticotropin
    • corticotropin
  35. GH
    Growth Hormone
  36. PRL
    Prolactin
  37. LH
    • lutenizing hormone (in female)
    • interstitial cell stimulating hormone, ICSH (in male)
  38. LTH
    • luteotropic hormone
    • luteotropin
    • lactogenic hormone
    • prolactin
  39. FSH
    follicle stimulating hormone
  40. ADH
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Vasopressin
  41. STH
    • somatotropic hormone
    • somatotropin
    • growth hormone
  42. neurohypophysis storage site for what hormones?
    • oxytocin
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin

    (both synthesized in the hypothalamus)
  43. Antidiuretic Hormone
    • ADH
    • affects kidneys, causing an increase in absorption of water by the tubules
    • reduces the volume of urine
    • increases water retention and volume of blood
  44. Oxytocin
    causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus during labor and stimulates milk production at lactation

    "pop" (causes contractions to "pop" out the puppies!!)
  45. hormones produced in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary gland
    • oxytocin
    • antidiuretic hormone
  46. water absorbed to keep blood pressure:
    Up.
  47. 3 causes of bilateral alopecia
    • hypothyroidism
    • hyperadrenal cortism
    • hyperestrogenism
  48. pars tuberalis
    • composed of epithelial cells and connective tissue separated by sinusoids of blood
    • has 6 types of cells
  49. chromophobes
    • precursor to cells that produce the hormones of the anterior lobe
    • (produce chromophils)
  50. chromophils
    separated by their staining properties

    • acidophils (stain red)
    • basophils (stain blue)
  51. acidophils 
    • somatotrophs-produce STH
    • lactotrophs- produce Prolactin

    *stain red
  52. basophils
    • FSH gonadotrophs- produce FSH
    • LH gonadotrophs- produce LH
    • Thyrotrophs- produce TSH
    • Corticotrophs- produce ACTH

    *stain blue
  53. hypothalmic-hypophyseal portal system
    series of veins that carry blood from the pituitary stalk and the brain to the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland

    these veins break up into small capillaries and actually account for the control of the hormones released by the adenohypophysis
  54. practical name for somatrophs
    growth hormone
  55. hormones dealing with posterior pituitary
    • oxytocin
    • antidiuretic hormone
  56. which hormones come from anterior pituitary?
    • STH
    • ACTH
    • TSH
    • FSH
    • LH
    • LTH
    • MSH

    (secretes a total of 7 different hormones, all under control of regulatory hormones secreted by hypothalamus)
  57. thyroid hormones
    • T4- thyroxine
    • T3- liothyronine
    • thyrocalcitonin
  58. TSH exerts its effects upon thyroid gland and stimulates the production of
    the thyroid hormones: T3, T4, thyrocalcitonin


    TRH > TSH >Thyroid > T3&T4&Thyrocalcitonin
  59. T4
    thyroxine
  60. T3
    liothyronine
  61. calcitonin
    thyrocalcitonin
  62. calcitonin prevents..
    removal of calcium from bones
  63. thyroid glands consists of follicles filled with
    colloid

    (the majority of which consists of a protein-iodine complex:thyroglobulin)
  64. calcitonin lowers..
    the blood level of calcium
  65. parathormone..
    raises calcium blood level by absorbing calcium from the bone 

    (antagonistic to calcitonin)
  66. antagonistic to calcitonin
    parathormone

    (raises calcium blood level)
  67. calcium: phosphorus ratio needs to be
    2:1
  68. thyroglobulin is the parent unit for
    levothyroxine sodium (tetraiodotyrosine)- T4 brand name: Soloxine & Synthroid

    liothyronine sodium (triiodotyrosine)- T3 brand name: Cytobin
  69. Thyroglobulin requires..
    Iodine to form T3&T4 and be biologically active. 

    (thyroid gland can concentrate and store iodine to levels 25-50 times that of circulatory blood)
  70. Iodine in the blood
    iodides
  71. Iodine in the thyroid gland
    Iodine or Oxidized Iodine
  72. Iodine to T3&T4
    the thyroid gland traps iodide in the colloid and oxidizes it to iodine

    iodine then incorporated into the amino acid, tyrosine, to form monoiodotyrosine  (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT)
  73. main secretory product of thyroid gland
    T4

    (formed and stored in thyroid gland)
  74. T3 formation.
    less than 20% of T3 formed in thyroid gland, remaining T3 formed from deiodination of T4
  75. primary functions of T3 and T4
    • control of enzymes and proteins for metabolism
    • maintenance of normal hair growth and skin condition
    • normal fetal development
  76. Review of formation T3/T4
    Iodide (in blood) >> Oxidized Iodine (in thyroid gland)

    Monoiodotyrosine (MIT) >> Diiodotyrosine (DIT) >>

    • Iodothyronines (T3&T4) 1. Liothyronine Sodium (triiodotyrosine)
    • 2. Levothyroxine Sodium (tetraiodotyrosine)
  77. clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism
    • lethargic
    • anemia
    • bilateral alopecia
    • cold
  78. clinical symptoms of hyperhtyroidism
    • nervous
    • fatigue
    • hunger
    • weight loss
  79. food that causes goiter (hyperthyroglobulin production)
    • cabbage
    • rutabagas
    • turnips
  80. derived from rathkes pouch
    adenohypophysis
  81. derived from embryonic brain
    neurohypophysis
  82. most common cause of endocrine problems in cats
    hyperthyroidism
  83. metabolic symptoms of hypothyroidism 
    • mental dullness
    • lethargy
    • exercise intolerance 
    • weight gain with no increase in appetite
    • cold intolerance  
  84. primary artery serving thyroid gland
    carotid artery
  85. dermatological symptoms of hypothyroidism 
    • bilateral alopecia
    • seborrhea- flaky, dry, oily
    • pyoderma- pus in and under skin
    • myxedema- thickening of skin (face)

    most brought in for hair loss. caused by thyroid gland not producing sufficient amounts of thyroid hormones to stimulate new hair growth
  86. primary hypothyroidism 
    • most common form (95%)
    • result of destruction of thyroid gland
    • develops gradually=not noticeable until 75% of thyroid destroyed

    most common symptoms of divided into 2 areas: metabolic (no energy bc not burning calories) dermatological (hair loss, etc)
  87. T3 and T4 function to maintain..
    activity as metabolism of all the tissues

    (so it makes sense that when their function or amount decreases, the skin and hair are affected)
  88. 3 internal diseases that cause bilateral alopecia
    • hypothyroidism
    • hyperadrenocortism
    • hyperestrogenism
  89. primary hypothyroidism problems typically start at
    4-6 yrs

    (can be seen 2-9)
  90. testing for hypothyroidism
    thyroxine (T4) test

    T3 rarely deficient, usually T4
  91. therapy for hypothyroidism
    name brand thyroxine: Synthyroid or Levothyroxine
  92. used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats
    methimazole

    lowers thyroxine (T4) by blocking uptake of iodine by thyroid
  93. signs of hyperthyroidism 
    • tachycardia
    • hyperactivity
    • weight loss
    • polyphagia
    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
  94. administration of methimazole 
    • 5 mg per os bid
    • topical cream to inner pineal surface of each ear
  95. why do you want to give steroids in the morning?
    so as not to suppress the bodies natural hormones it produces it at night
  96. where are glucocorticoids produced?
    adrenal gland
  97. secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is regulated by
    corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus
  98. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) regulates the production of
    • glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone)
    • mineralocorticoids
    • sex hormones 

    (all are steroid-based hormones that affect cellular metabolism)
  99. layers of adrenal gland starting with outermost
    • capsule
    • zona glomerulosa
    • zona fasiculata
    • zona reticularis
    • adrenal medulla
  100. layer of adrenal responsible for secretion of mineralocorticoids
    zona glomerulosa
  101. name the glucocorticoids
    • cortisol
    • corticosterone
  102. two parts of the adrenal gland
    • capsuleadrenal cortex (outer-made up of 3 layers)
    • adrenal medulla
  103. layer of adrenal gland responsible for secretion of glucocorticoids
    zona fasiculata
  104. layer of adrenal gland responsible for sex steroids
    zona reticularis
  105. Addison's Disease
    producing no hormones/steroids
  106. Cushing's Syndrome
    producing too much steroids
  107. hormones naturally produced at night by the zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex
    glucocorticoids
  108. synthetic glucocorticoids
    corticosteroids

    ex: Dexamethasone, Prednisone
  109. stimulates adrenal gland
    ACTH- Adrenal corticotropic hormone
  110. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    secreted in response to production of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus
  111. ex of sex releasing hormones
    • gonadotropin
    • FSH
    • ICSH
  112. FSH acts in female vs male
    female- acts on ovarian follicles to stimulate its development and maturation

    male- promotes maturation of sperm
  113. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in female vs male
    female- stimulates ovulation and development of corpus luteum 

    male- regulates production of the hormone testosterone by the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testes
  114. prolactin (PRL) job
    • stimulates development of mammary glands of pregnant female
    • active role in lactation 

    hypothalamic hormones that control it's secretion: prolactin releasing factor (PRF) and prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH)
  115. Growth Hormones job
    • cellular growth
    • regulates production of proteins by cells
    • controls energy used within body 

    during times of poor food supply will stimulate gluconeogenesis

    production regulated by: growth hormone releasing hormone (GH-RH) and growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GH-IH) produced by the hypothalamus 
  116. which hormones come from anterior pituitary?
    • ACTH
    • MSH
    • TSH
    • GH
    • PRL
    • LH
    • FSH
  117. which hormones come from posterior pituitary?
    • antidieuretic hormone/vasopressin 
    • oxytocin
  118. MSH
    melanocyte-stimulating hormone 

    (former intermediate lobe hormone)
  119. MSH important in
    production of skin pigments in fish, amphibia, reptiles, many mammals (not primates)

    its target cells are melanocytes within epidermis-stimulates these to produce skin pigment known as melanin

    secretion controlled by melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH) produced by hypothalamus
  120. Pineal Gland
    "third eye" 

    contains neurons, neuroglia, and specialized secretory cells called pinealocytes
  121. pinealocytes
    secrete an enzyme called seratonin which under influence from light can increase or decrease the production of melatonin 
  122. melatonin, a hormone that influences
    reproductive behaviors
  123. dark=
    melatonin high
  124. light=
    melatonin low
  125. horses breed in ?
    sheep ?
    horses- spring (melatonin decrease bc light exposure is increasing)

    sheep- fall (melatonin increase bc less light exposure)
  126. Parathyroid Hormone names
    • PTH
    • parathormone
  127. Chief Cells produce
    parathyroid hormone in response to falling levels of calcium ions in the blood.

    PTH secretion causes an increase in circulating calcium
  128. PTH increases calcium by
    • stimulates activity of osteoclasts within bone to cause breakdown of bone matrix
    • osteoblast activity inhibited-calcium into blood instead of bone
    • urinary secretion of calcium ions reduced
    • stimulates secretion of calcitrol by kidney-increases calcium absorption from digestive tract
  129. calcitrol produced from
     kidney
  130. antagonist to calcitrol
    calcitonin (decreases calcium blood level)
  131. causes of hyperparathyroidism 
    • neoplasia of parathyroid gland
    • secondary indirect hyperparathyroidism (kidney problem)
    • secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism (lack of proper diet)
  132. neoplasia of parathyroid gland
    • causes overproduction of PTH
    • demineralization of bone causing bones to weaken and fracture
  133. secondary indirect hyperparathyroidism
    • chronic renal failure
    • body attempts to maintain calcium level by absorbing it from the bone resulting in rubbery bones "rubber jaw"
  134. secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism
    meat only diet (meat is low in calcium levels for dogs so their bodies adjust with over-production of PTH)
  135. secreted when there is an increase in concentration of calcium ions above threshold level
    calcitonin (decreases calcium blood level)
  136. thyroid hormones
    • thyroxine (T4)
    • liothyronine (T3)
    • thyrocalcitonin 
  137. list some antagonists
    • calcitrol&calcitonin
    • parathyroid gland&thyroid gland
    • ANP (reduce blood vol)&Aldosterone (increase blood vol)
  138. NT-proBNP (enzyme)
    peptide similar to ANP secreted by Left ventricle in response to Left ventricle wall stretch/stress

    • canine test available through ANTECH
    • dog&cat through IDEXX

    • 0-900 normal
    • above 1800=heart failure
  139. calcitonin's effect
    causes fall in calcium ion concentration by inhibiting osteoclast activity in bone (thereby increasing bone deposition) and by promoting secretion of calcium ions by kidney in urine
  140. thymus
    • in mediastinum of thorax
    • size decreases with age
    • produces hormone: Thymosin
  141. thymosin
    hormone that promotes development and maturation of lymphocytes

    (contributing factor to immune response in young, its deterioration with age may account for being more prone to disease as grow older)
  142. 2 types of lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes "plasma cells" produce immunoglobulins (antibodies)
  143. walls of atria secrete this hormone when when over-stretched
    atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

    (over-stretching of atria walls occurs when circulating blood vol is too high. ANP helps to reduce circulating blood vol-vasodilation) 
  144. ANP job
    reduces blood volume
  145. ANP reduces blood volume by
    • secretion of Na ions&water secretion increased by kidney
    • suppression of thirst
    • release of rennin, ADH, Aldosterone is suppressed
    • angiotensin 2 and norepinephrine cause vasoconstriction, ANP prevents this and consequently promotes vasodilation=reduce in blood pressure
  146. kidneys secrete these 2 hormones
    • calcitrol
    • erythropoietin
  147. HYPERadrenocorticism is associated with
    Cushing's Disease
  148. HYPOadrenocorticism is associated with
    Addison's
  149. erythropoietin (EPO)
    • released by kidney when circulating blood oxygen levels are low
    • job-produce more RBC
  150. adrenal cortex divided into 3 layers
    • glomerulosa (outer)
    • fasiculata (middle)
    • reticularis (inner)
  151. produces catecholamines
    adrenal medulla
  152. adrenal cortex produces more than ___ hormones
    • 24
    • all steroid based
    • carried in circulation bound to carrier proteins so have longer duration of action than other hormones
    • these hormones effect the genes of cells that control the production of enzymes
    • overall effect on cellular metabolism as a whole
  153. what is the difference between corticosteroid and glucocorticoid?
    corticosteroid- synthetic glucocorticoid (ex:dexamethazone)

    glucocorticoid- hormones naturally produced by zona fasiculata
  154. zona glomerulosa
    • mineralocorticoids
    • *aldosterone
    • contributes to regulation of electrolytes in body, primarily sodium and potassium
  155. aldosterone is triggered by:
    • fall in levels of sodium ions in circulation below the threshold level
    • fall in blood vol or blood pressure
    • rise in potassium ions in the extracellular fluid

    (aldosterone is secreted in order to conserve sodium ions within the body and excrete potassium ions)
  156. zona fasiculata
    • glucocorticoids
    • *cortisol and corticosterone
    • secreted at times of stress
    • help to spare glucose by mobilizing other sources of energy such as amino acids and lipis (gluconeogenisis)
  157. when talking about hyperadrenocorticism, only talking about..
    zona fasiculata producing cortisol and corticosteroids or from veterinarian giving too many steroids long time (iatrogenically induced cushing's syndrome) 
  158. Hyperadrenocorticism- adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of
    glucocorticoids either due to over-production of ACTH from pituitary gland or production of excess cortisol as a consequence of neoplasia of adrenal gland
  159. symptoms of hyperadrenocorticism
    • polyphagia
    • polydipsia
    • polyurea
    • hair loss
    • pot belly
    • thinning of skin
  160. causes of cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism) 
    • bilateral adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary stimulation
    • unilateral functional neoplasm
    • secondary adrenal secretions due to pituitary stimulation, either pituitary hyperplasia or functional pituitary tumor
    • prolong administration of large amounts of adrenocorticosteroids- iatrogenically induced

    (85-90% due to pituitary tumors-other 10-15% adrenal tumors)
  161. testing for cushing's
    • Low Dose Dexamethasone Screening Test (LDDS)
    • give 0.01-0.15 mg dex IV if has cushing's cortisol levels remain high. if does not have cortisol levels will subside immediately
  162. most common treatment of cushing's disease
    Anipryl (L-Deprenyl & Selegiline HCl)
  163. How does Anipryl work?
    as animal ages MAOB (monoamine oxidase-type B) production increases resulting in the decrease of the catecholamine dopamine which in turn results in hyperadrenocorticism. Anipryl is given, inhibiting production of MAOB. dopamine metabolism is restored and clinical signs of cushing's are minimized
  164. dopamine controls/supresses
    release of glucocorticoids

    (when glucocorticoids allowed to roam free=cushing's)
  165. Lysodren (Op, DDD)
    • older treatment for cushing's
    • necrosis of fasiculata and reticularis
    • hard to control but safer than vetoryl and more effective than anipryl
  166. Vetoryl (Trilostane)
    • enzyme blocker of steroids synthesis specifically on zona fasiculata to prevent production or release of glucocorticoids
    • attacks all 3 zones
    • "latest and greatest" but expensive, short lived, not as safe
  167. Anipryl is
    Selegiline Hydrochloride 

    used for Hyperadrenocorticism  or Cushing's Disease
  168. Enacard is
    Enalapril Maleate

    an ACE inhibitor used to treat Congestive Heart Failure
  169. Hypoadrenocorticism
    • Addison's Disease
    • adrenal cortices cannot produce adequate levels of Aldosterone resulting in increase in retention of Potassium in circulation (as it is not excreted by kidneys-bc no aldosterone) 

    signs: vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, weight loss, general weakness progressing to collapse, in severe cases, coma and death
  170. sex steroids produced in zona reticularis in small quantities 
    • androgens
    • testosterone
    • some converted into estrogens in both male and female
  171. adrenal medulla stimulated by neurons from the
    sympathetic nervous system to produce epinephrine and norepinephrine.

    • causes increase in heart rate, rate&depth of respiration, blood pressure
    • blood glucose levels also increase due to increased breakdown of glycogen
    • blood vessels dilated
  172. prescribe to pets with congestive heart failure
    Enacard (Enalapril Maleate)
  173. 99% of all left side heart failure due to
    mitral valve insufficiency: allowing blood to escape from left ventricle into left atrium and then backing up into the lungs

    • produces "cardiac cough" 
    • pulmonary edema 
  174. Enacard stops
    regurgitation and consequently pulmonary edema and "cardiac cough"
  175. Renin-Angiotensin System
    • BP drops, detected by Juxtaglomerular cell which in response releases Renin
    • Renin takes Angiotensinogen and converts to Angiotensin I
    • Angiotensin I is converted into Angiotensin II by Angiotensin Conversion Enzyme (ACE)
    • Angiotensin II goes to the adrenal gland and causes the outer layer (zona glomerulosa) to release Aldosterone
    • Aldosterone goes to the kidney to cause absorption of Na
    • So goes sodium, so goes water: As Na is absorbed, water comes with it increasing the volume of blood thereby raising BP

    once BP increased, circulates (60 sec) up to kidney, where it is measured, once normal kidney will stop releasing Renin (negative feedback)
  176. in congestive heart failure we are trying to
    reduce the volume of blood 

    (by reducing Na we reduce water. by reducing water we are able to drop the BP down so as blood is regurgitated from the left ventricle into the left atrium and then into the lungs, we will get less fluid absorbed into the lungs)
  177. how do we control the Renin-Angiotensin System?
    Enacard (enalapril maleate)

    Enacard is an ACE inhibitor- blocks the conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. This stops the Renin-Angiotensin System in its tracks and allows the animals BP to remain lower than normal, controlling the pulmonary edema that comes with mitral valve insufficiencies.
  178. stimulate sympathetic
    • heart rate goes up
    • respirations go up
    • vasoconstriction
  179. stimulate parasympathetic
    • heart rate goes down
    • respirations go down
    • vasodilation
  180. stress triad
    • neutrophilia
    • eosinopenia
    • lymphopenia
  181. pathology seen with excessive adrenal cortex stimulation
    • cushing's syndrome
    • addison's disease
  182. mixed gland
    pancreas

    endocrine function through secretion of hormones (insulin, glucagon)

    exocrine function through secretion of enzyme-rich fluids into digestive tract (amylase, trypsin, lipase)
  183. endocrine cells of pancreas (1%)
    Islets of Langerhans
  184. 4 types of cells in Islets of Langerhans
    • Alpha- secrete hormone glucagon
    • Beta- insulin
    • Delta- somatostatin
    • F- pancreatic peptide
  185. acinar cells
    exocrine- produce digestive juice

    (lipase, amylase, trypsin)
  186. Alpha cells
    • endocrine
    • secrete hormone: glucagon
    • causes increase in blood glucose levels by stimulating breakdown of glycogen in muscle and liver.
    • secreted in response to a fall in blood glucose detected by alpha cells themselves
  187. Beta cells
    • endocrine
    • secrete hormone: insulin
    • secreted in response to a rise in blood glucose
  188. function of insulin
    to get glucose of out the blood stream and into the tissues
  189. Delta cells
    • endocrine
    • secrete hormone: somatostatin
    • secreted in response to peaks of insulin or glucagon
    • helps balance them out
  190. F cells
    • endocrine
    • secrete hormone: pancreatic peptide
    • thought to affect production of some pancreatic digestive enzymes
  191. gall bladder produces
    bile (digests fat)
  192. type 1 vs type 2
    • 1-lack of insulin
    • 2-lack of insulin receptors 
  193. Diabetes mellitus vs insipidus
    • mellitus- lack of insulin or insulin receptors
    • cannot regulate blood glucose levels, rise above renal threshold resulting in glucose in urine

    • insipidus- lack of ADH
    • inability to produce adequate amounts of ADH which causes retention of water within the body. consequently, cannot control amount of water secreted in urine and produce abundant quantities of dilute urine
  194. gonads
    • testes
    • ovaries
  195. male gonads
    testes produce hormones testosterone&estrogen

    testosterone secreted by interstitial cells of Leydig

    function of testosterone: develop&maintain viable spermatozoa, secretory cells of reproductive tract, and determine male secondary sexual characteristics (musculature, territorial scent marking)
  196. secretion of testosterone controlled by
    LH or ICSH from anterior pituitary gland

    (the hormone inhibin, produced by testis and ovary has a negative feedback upon production of FSH from anterior pituitary in both male and female)
  197. female gonads
    ovaries produce 2 hormones in different amounts depending on stage of ovulation

    estrogen&progesterone 
  198. Estrogens
    support maturation of oocyte and help prepare reproductive tract for mating and conception

    • produced by developing cells of follicle
    • prior to ovulation under direct control of FSH
  199. Progesterone
    maintain pregnancy by ensuring uterus stays in suitable condition to support developing embryo 

    produced by corpus luteum of ovary following ovulation
  200. relaxin
    hormone produced by female during pregnancy in corpus luteum placenta and uterus

    • function: prepare body for birth process
    • laxity of pubic symphysis

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