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- Of those sentenced to a custodial term
- Punishment may occur as a result of custody (lack of freedom)
- Security is first priority of institutions
- Security of public, staff, inmates
Treatment jeopardizes security, so...
As security goes up, treatment goes down
Levels of Security-Minimum
- Not likely to escape; not dangerous
- Emphasis on: rehabilitation, reintegration
Levels of Security-Medium
- Likely to escape; not dangerous
- Emphasis on: security, but access to rehabilitation programs
Levels of Security-Maximum
- Likely to escape and dangerous
- Emphasis on: Definite security
- Provision of programs to aid offender in becoming a law-abiding citizen
- In conflict with custody
- The lower the security level, the more treatment opportunities
- Done through case management
- Examples of programs include: literacy, cognitive skills, sex offender treatment, substance abuse intervention, family violence programs
Classification of Offenders
- Offenders once sentences to incarceration, are classified according to risks and needs associated with each offender
- Court sentences to period of incarceration but does not specify level of security or the specific institution
- Classification done at Classification Centers (measured by likelihood to escape and danger)
Concept of "Cascading"
- Through period of incarceration, offender may cascade (move) to lower level of security institution to prepare for reintegration into community
- As security levels are reduced; more opportunities for treatment programs
- As security decreases; treatment increases
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