Chapter 12 Vocabulary

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  1. shore
    region from the outer limit of wave action on the bottom to the limit of the waves' direct influence on the land
  2. geomorphology
    study of land forms and the processes that formed them
  3. eustatic change
    worldwide change (in sea level)
  4. primary coast
    • coasts formed by:
    • 1. erosion of land by running water, wind, or land ice followed by sinking of land or rise in sea level
    • 2. deposits of sediments carried by rivers, glaciers, or wind
    • 3. volcanic activity
    • 4. uplift and subsidence of the land by earthquakes and associated crustal movements
  5. secondary coast
    • coasts formed by
    • 1. erosion due to waves, currents, or dissolving action of seawater
    • 2. deposition of sediments by waves, tides, or currents
    • 3. alteration by marine plants and animals
  6. fjord
    long, deep, narrow channels with U-shaped cross sections
  7. sill
    shallow entrance to a fjord created by collection of debris at the lip
  8. moraine
    mound of rubble left behind when a glacier ceases forward motion and retreats
  9. drowned river valley
    ice-age rivers that were exposed due to lower sea level that were filled in later when the icebergs melted
  10. delta
    deposit of river-borne sediment left at the mouth of a river that forms a flat, fertile coastal area
  11. lava coast
    beaches formed by lava flow extending to the sea
  12. dune coast
    wind-modified depositional coast
  13. fault coast
    coast formed by tectonic movement
  14. sea stacks
    small rock islands that form due to irregular erosion
  15. barrier islands
    sand bars that break the surface due to increased sediment deposition
  16. sand spit/hook
    sand bars connected to the shore at one end
  17. salt marsh
    low-lying protected coasts with areas of sand/mud that become covered with grasses
  18. backshore
    dry region of a beach that is submerged only during highest tides/severe storms
  19. offshore
    shallow-water areas seaward of the low-tide terrace to the limit of wave action on the sea floor
  20. foreshore
    area of beach that extends past the low-level tide
  21. berm
    low terraces that appear in backshore area
  22. winter berm
    higher of two berms found on a beach
  23. berm crest
    ridge on berm that runs parallel to the coast
  24. summer berm
    lower of two berms found on a beach
  25. scarp
    abrupt change in beach slope
  26. beach face
    steeper face of a low-tide terrace
  27. tombolo
    spit that has grown to connect a rock or island to the shore
  28. salt wedge estuary
    • simplest type of estuary
    • occur within the mouth of a river flowing directly into salt water
    • freshwater flows rapidly into te ocean, saltwater flows up into the river
  29. well-mixed estuary
    • strong tidal mixing and low river flow
    • create slow net seaward flow of water at all depths
    • uniform salinity, decreases from ocean to river
    • salt is transferred inward by mixing and diffusion
  30. partially mixed estuary
    • strong net seaward flow of freshwater, strong inflow of seawater at depth
    • seawater mixed upward combined with river by tidal current
    • seawards surface flow
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Chapter 12 Vocabulary
2013-04-09 03:57:48
evsc oceanography chapter 12 vocabulary

Chapter 12 vocab for EVSC 2050
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