Exam 1 Study Guide (Mastering A&P)

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lonelygirl
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212329
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Exam 1 Study Guide (Mastering A&P)
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2013-05-17 18:32:51
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. Which of the following is a single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes?

    A. pseudostratified columnar
    B. simple columnar
    C. simple squamous
    D. simple cuboidal
    C. simple squamous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.

    A. reticular
    B. elastic
    C. muscle
    D. collagen
    D. collagen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

    A. epiphyseal plate closure
    B. closing of the epiphyseal plate
    C. concentric growth
    D. appositional growth
    D. appositional growth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which set of membrane proteins in the figure depicts the transport of solute molecules?



    A. A
    B. B
    C. C
    D. D
    A. A
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

    A. trabecular bone
    B. compact bone
    C. spongy bone
    D. irregular bone
    B. compact bone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

    A. houses the bone marrow which produces blood cells (hematopoiesis)
    B. storage of minerals
    C. support
    D. communication
    D. communication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.

    A. cartilage and interstitial lamellae
    B. blood vessels and nerve fibers
    C. yellow marrow and spicules
    D. adipose tissue and nerve fibers
    B. blood vessels and nerve fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes. True or False
    True
  9. Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.

    A. ceruminous
    B. exocrine
    C. sebaceous
    D. endocrine
    D. endocrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following names the three main parts of a human cell?

    A. plasma membrane, mitochondria, and nucleus
    B. cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus
    C. mitochondria, lysosome, and centriole
    D. cytoplasm, nucleus, and lysosome
    B. cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. A many-layered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.

    A. stratified squamous
    B. simple cuboidal
    C. simple squamous
    D. transitional
    C. stratified squamous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following would NOT diffuse through the plasma membrane by means of simple diffusion?

    A. a lipid soluble vitamin
    B. a steroid hormone
    C. oxygen
    D. glucose
    D. glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The role of brown fat is to warm the body; whereas, the role of white fat is to store nutrients. True or False
    True
  14. Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

    A. oxygen transport
    B. circulating antibody
    C. forms a lipid bilayer
    D. molecular transport through the membrane
    D. molecular transport through the membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.

    A. fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins
    B. 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
    C. primarily uric acid
    D. metabolic wastes
    B. 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.

    A. the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substances
    B. resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
    C. cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditions
    D. epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir
    B. resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. What are the three main components of connective tissue?

    A. alveoli, fibrous capsule, and secretory cells
    B. ground substance, fibers, and cells
    C. collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
    D. fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts
    B. ground substance, fibers, and cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. What is the structural unit of compact bone?

    A. osseous matrix
    B. spongy bone
    C. lamellar bone
    D. the osteon
    D. the osteon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration. True or False
    False; higher solute concentration
  20. The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.

    A. by hormones, especially androgens
    B. by high temperatures
    C. when the air temperature drops
    D. as a protective coating when one is swimming
    A. by hormones, especially androgens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. By which mechanism would a steroid molecule diffuse into the cell?



    A. C
    B. any of the three mechanisms
    C. B
    D. A
    D. A
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Connective tissue matrix is composed of ________.

    A. fibers and ground substance
    B. ground substance and cells
    C. all organic compounds
    D. cells and fibers
    A. fibers and ground substance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels. True or False
    False
  24. The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.

    A. it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock
    B. it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock
    C. the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
    D. the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus
    C. the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

    A. the subcutaneous layer
    B. the reticular layer
    C. the hypodermal layer
    D. the papillary layer
    B. the reticular layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium ciliated variety ________.

    A. is not an epithelial classification
    B. possesses no goblet cells
    C. aids in digestion
    D. lines most of the respiratory tract
    D. lines most of the respiratory tract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. What is the primary function of the mitochondria?

    A. They are the main sites of ATP production.
    B. They are the primary sites of protein production in a cell.
    C. They are the main sites of photosynthesis.
    D. They build cholesterol.
    A. They are the main sites of ATP production.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material. True or False
    True
  29. Which organelle is responsible for synthesizing proteins?

    A. mitochondria
    B. ribosomes
    C. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    D. Golgi apparatus
    B. ribosomes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane?

    A. Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the
    kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.
    B. Active transport means that the cell is actively going after substances that it wants to bring into the cell, whereas passive transport means that the cell just waits for the substance to cross the
    membrane.
    C. Active transport is used to move substances down their concentration gradient, whereas passive transport is used to move substances against their concentration gradient.
    D. Active transport implies that the cell is working with other cells, whereas passive transport implies that the cell does not
    cooperate with other cells.
    A. Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.
  31. Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin. True or False
    True
  32. Chondroblasts ________.

    A. are mature cartilage cells located in spaces called lacunae
    B. remain in compact bone even after the epiphyseal plate closes
    C. within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
    D. never lose their ability to divide
    C. within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________.

    A. adipose tissue
    B. hyaline cartilage
    C. fibrocartilage
    D. elastic cartilage
    D. elastic cartilage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following is characteristic of cilia?

    A. They move substances in any direction across cell surfaces.
    B. They are substantially longer than flagella, and are most easily seen in human sperm cells.
    C. They are used for cellular adhesion.
    D. They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.
    D. They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones. True or False
    True
  36. In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?

    A. It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
    B. It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.
    C. It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.
    D. The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.
    A. It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The glycocalyx is often referred to as the "cell coat," which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane. True or Fale
    False
  38. The simple columnar epithelium that form absorptive cells of the digestive tract have which characteristic?

    A. a rich vascular supply
    B. dense microvilli
    C. cilia
    D. fibroblasts
    B. dense microvilli
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

    A. the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity
    B. differentiation of osteoclasts into osteocytes
    C. interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
    D. calcification of the matrix of the zone underlying articular cartilage
    C. interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which cell component helps to maintain the structural integrity of the cell?

    A. cytoskeleton
    B. peroxisome
    C. centriole
    D. ribosome
    A. cytoskeleton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands. True or False
    False
  42. A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot, almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?

    A. granulosum
    B. spinosum
    C. basale
    D. lucidum
    C. basale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The plasma membrane is made primarily of ________.

    A. phospholipids
    B. nucleic acids
    C. water
    D. amino acids
    A. phospholipids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. There is only one cell type in the human body that has a flagellum. True or False
    True
  45. A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

    A. basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
    B. corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
    C. granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum
    D. basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
    B. corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Diffusion is a form of active transport. True or False
    False; passive transport.
  47. Which statement best describes connective tissue?

    A. typically arranged in a single layer of cells
    B. usually contains a large amount of matrix
    C. usually lines a body cavity
    D. primarily concerned with secretion
    B. usually contains a large amount of matrix
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?

    A. bone
    B. membranes
    C. cartilage
    D. fascia
    C. cartilage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?

    A. monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes
    B. osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells
    C. goblet cells, parietal cells, and chondrocytes
    D. fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
    D. fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:

    A. dermal papillae.
    B. ceruminous glands.
    C. hair follicles.
    D. reticular papillae.
    A. dermal papillae.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. What is a membrane potential?

    A. the possibility of cell activity
    B. the ability of the cells to perform their specialized functions
    C. a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
    D. cooperation between cells
    C. a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?

    A. stratum corneum
    B. stratum lucidum
    C. stratum granulosum
    D. stratum basale
    D. stratum basale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

    A. presence of osteoblasts in the bone
    B. amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone
    C. amount of mineral salts in the bone
    D. sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
    D. sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue.

    A. It is composed mostly of extracellular matrix.
    B. Most of the cell volume is occupied by the nucleus.
    C. Its primary function is nutrient storage.
    D. Mature adipose cells are highly mitotic.
    C. Its primary function is nutrient storage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Which type of cell junction acts as anchors and distributes tension through a cellular sheet and reduces the chance of tearing when it is subjected to great mechanical stress?

    A. desmosomes
    B. gap junctions
    C. tight junctions
    D. connexons
    A. desmosomes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

    A. fat
    B. Sharpey's fibers
    C. elastic tissue
    D. blood-forming cells
    A. fat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Epithelial tissues always exhibit apica-basal polarity; meaning that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface. True or False
    True
  58. Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

    A. epiphyseal line
    B. epiphyseal plate
    C. lacunae
    D. Haversian system
    B. epiphyseal plate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Cholesterol helps to stabilize the cell membrane while decreasing the mobility of the phospholipids. True or False
    True
  60. Which of the following events might the solid arrow at the bottom of B represent?




    A. the movement of a specific protein from the membrane to the cytoplasm
    B. the conversion of a chemical messenger molecule into a specific product
    C. the transport of specific chemical messengers into the cell
    D. the activation of specific cytoplasmic enzymes
    D. the activation of specific cytoplasmic enzymes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. ________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.

    A. Stratified cuboidal
    B. Pseudostratified columnar
    C. Transitional
    D. Stratified columnar
    B. Pseudostratified columnar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. The structural unit of spongy is called ________.

    A. trabeculae
    B. osteons
    C. lamellar bone
    D. osseous lamellae
    A. trabeculae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Select the correct statement regarding the stem cells of connective tissue.

    A. Connective tissue cells are nondividing.
    B. "Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.
    C. Chondroblasts are the main cell type of connective tissue proper.
    D. Connective tissue does not contain cells.
    B. "Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen. True or False
    False
  65. Microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein myosin. True or False
    False
  66. Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?

    A. a double layer of protein enclosing the plasma
    B. the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
    C. a membrane composed of tiny shelves or cristae
    D. a single-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
    B. the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues. True or False
    True
  68. Diffusion movement always occurs from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration. True or False
    True
  69. Which of the following processes allows cells to concentrate material that is present only in very small amounts in the extracellular fluid?

    A. transcytosis
    B. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    C. phagocytosis
    D. pinocytosis
    B. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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