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Consists of a list of behaviors that evaluators use to describe the performance of employees.
A checklist to evaluate an employee can be developed by obtaining a number of statements about employee performance from critical incident descriptions.
After a comprehensive list of these statements has been compiled, a group of judges – either supervisors or job incumbents – evaluate each statement on a zero to ten scale regarding its favorability and contribution to organizational effectiveness. When the judges do not agree on the favorability of a statement, it is eliminated. The items on which the judges agree are then weighted on the basis of the average scores assigned by the judges.
Narrative Appraisal Methods – Essays
Evaluator asked to write a free-form essay describing an employee’s performance.
Typically describe the employee’s job responsibilities and then explain how well the employee has performed them.
4 Behaviorally-Based Appraisal Methods:
- Management By Objectives (MBO)
- Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
- Behavioral expectation scales (BES)
- Behaviorally Observation Scales (BOS)
The implementation of an MBO program typically occurs in 3 phases:
Phase 1: focuses on evaluating performance against measurable objectives. (administered almost exclusively by the human resource dept. Attempt to clarify responsibilities andfocus on achieving results.)
Phase 2: MBO programs are integrated into an organization’s planning and control processes. Greater involvement and support are obtained from both top management and linemanagers, and the MBO program becomes tied to the organization’s planning andbudgeting cycle.
Phase 3: is a fully implemented MBO system. In this phase, all of the major organizational functions and key management processes are integrated in a logical and consistent manner. These functions and processes include performance evaluations, budgeting and financial planning, the development of strategic plans and overall goals, staffing, compensation, human resource development, and management training and development. The emphasis is on teamwork and flexibility in establishing goals and plans, frequent performance reviews, and achieving individual growth and development
MBO is defined by 4 principles:
- goal setting,
- feedback reviews, and
Once the central mission and long-range plans of an org have been formulated, the cascading process begins. Departmental and individual objectives are derived from organizational goals that cascade downward through the organization. Briefly described, the long-range goals become the basis for formulating short-range objectives, from which the objectives for each major division and subunit are then obtained.
A recent adaptation of MBO involves the use ofwritten performance contracts. Thepurpose of these contracts is to increase employee motivation by rewardingemployee behaviors.
Behavioral expectation scales (BES)
Like BARS, the dimensions in a BES are considered essential behaviors as revealed by a critical incidents analysis. Raters simply check the behavior that the employee could be expected to demonstrate. This expectation is based on what the rater has seen the employee do over a period of time. Behavioral expectation scales are often used to diagnose individual training needs.
Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS)
An advantage over BARS is that it asks the rater only to describe the frequency of behavior rather than to evaluate the quality of performance.
The evaluator simply records the frequency that various behaviors were observed – without deciding whether the behaviors were good or bad
Interview format that involves identifying and discussing any problems, then talking about future improvements, and finally expressing appreciation for good behaviors.
2 separate evaluations sessions should occur (some org's seperate the 2 by 6 months):
the contributions appraisal – should focus on outcomes and evaluate results (what the employee has contributed to the company in the past), with the objective of improving future performance through effective reward contingencies.
The other – the personal-development appraisal – should focus on behaviors and personal development.
Is primarily a change in title only, such as the promotion of an assistant professor to associate professor, or an accountant to senior accountant.
A defensible evaluation procedure should satisfy 5 criteria:
- Identify objective, job-related criteria: employees should be assessed againstperformance dimensions that are clearly connected to important aspects of their jobs.
- Document performance events: the evaluation procedure should require supervisors to document performance events that could lead to disciplinary actions.
- Communicate performance standards
- Use reasonable care: evaluators can be guilty of negligence if theywrite meaningless or vicious narratives, fail to give full consideration to allaspects of performance, or fail to inform employees about the evaluation,especially if there are deficiencies
- Train evaluators