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What are the temperatures in Kelvin and Celsius for the following?
1. Absolute zero
2. Freezing point of water
3. Boiling point of water
K C
1. 0 273
2. 273 0
3. 373 100

What if the formula for converting Kelvin to Celsius?
T_{C} =
T_{C} = T_{K}  273

What is the formula for thermal expansion of a solid?
ΔL =
ΔL = αLΔT (α = coefficient of linear expansion)

What is the formula for volume thermal expansion of a liquid or a solid?
ΔV =
ΔV = βVΔT (β = coefficient of volume expansion)

What type of heat transfer involves the direct transfer of energy from molecule to molecule through molecular collisions?
Conduction.

What type of heat transfer involves the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves?
Radiation.

What type of heat transfer involves the physical motion of heated materials?
Convection.

What are the units of heat?
The units of heat are the calorie, Btu, or Joule.

What is the difference between a calorie and a Calorie?
A Calorie is a nutritional term and is equal to 1000 calories.

What is the formula relating heat gained and temperature change? Q =
Q = (mass)(specific heat)(ΔT) = mcΔT

What is heat of fusion?
Heat of fusion is the amount of energy required for a phase change from solid to liquid.

What is the heat of vaporization?
Heat of vaporization is the amount of energy required for a phase change from liquid to gas.

What is the formula for heat gained or lost during a phase change? Q =
Q = (mass)(Heat of transformation) = mL

What is the SI unit of pressure?
The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal.

What is an isobaric process?
An isobaric process is a process done at constant pressure.

What is the formula for work (given an isobaric process)?
W =
W = (Pressure)(ΔVolume) = PΔV

What is the formula for the First Law of Thermodynamics?
ΔU =
ΔU = (heat energy gained)  (work done by the system)

(T/F) Heat flow out of a system is (+) and heat flow into a system is ().
False, heat flow out of a system is () and heat flow into a system is (+).

What is an adiabatic process?
An adiabatic process is one in which no heat flows from the system to its surroundings (or vice versa).

What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy of a closed system will either increase or remain unchanged.

Does a totally reversible process increase the entropy of the universe? What about an irreversible process?
A totally reversible process does not increase the entropy of the universe, but an irreversible process does.

