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The following 7 factors have been recommended as crucial to the success of a change effort:
- Having a change sponsor
- Creating a shared need: employees need to see the reason for the change and understand why it is important
- Creating a shared vision
- Mobilizing commitment: who needs to be involved in the change? Those sponsoring a change initiate need to recognize who else needs to be committed to the change to help make it happen.
- Changing systems and structures: to what extent have the changes been integrated with other central structures and systems
- Monitoring progress
- Making change last: those sponsoring change need to have a short-term plan for starting the change effort and a long-term plan for ensuring that it will continue.
3 kinds of change:
- Transformational Change
- Transitional Change
- Developmental Change
- A gradual improvement in skills, methods, or processes to help an organization function more efficiently.
- An improvement in what is currently happening rather than the formation of an entirely new process.
- The change occurs gradually over time.
- Involves new processes, new activities, new products, and sometimes a new organizational structure.
- Usually occurs in defined transition steps such as a series of delineated stages, pilot projects, phase-in operations, temporary arrangements, or reorganizations.
- Characterized by a radical reconceptualization of the organization’s mission, culture, products, leadership, or structure.
- Occurs in companies that have become stagnant and started to disintegrate
- AKA Punctual equilibrium - which refers to an alternation between long periods when stable organizational structures permit only incremental adjustments separated by brief periods ofrevolutionary upheaval
Theories of Change:
Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis
- Change occurs when the forces pushing in one direction are greater than the forces pushing in the opposite direction.
- According to Kurt Lewin, planned change occurs in 3 stages: unfreezing, change, and refreezing.
- Managers create planned change by altering the restraining and driving forces.
Theories of Change:
Creating Lasting Change: Dalton's Change Model
Explains what has to occur during the unfreezing, change, and refreezing processes in order to ensure lasting change. He argues that change will not occur unless there is sufficient pain and tension to motivate it.
To ensure that the change persists, Dalton’s model identifies 4 sub-processes that involve movement away from one state to movement toward an opposite state:
- Generalized goals - to - Specific objectives: for a change strategy to be successful and produce lasting change, people need to know exactly what they need to do differently and what is expected of them.
- Former Social Ties - to - New Relationships: it is doubtful that people who remain with their former social ties, where their behavior patterns were built around their previous associations, will ever create new and lasting behavior patterns. Lasting change requires new relationships that support the intended changes in behavior and attitudes.
- Self Doubt - to - Heightened Self-Esteem: one of the most important conditions for the successful initiation of lasting change is a sense of tension or a felt need for change. This pain and discomfort tends to cause self doubt and a decreased sense of self-esteem. Thinking that the change was good and feeling greater self-esteem tend to reinfoce the change effort and cause it to endure.
- External Motives for Change - to - Interal Motive for Change: change efforts that are motivated by external pressures tend to persis only as long as the external pressures persist. Lasting change is more likely when people have good reasons for it (cognitive justifications) that they have internalized as their own.
rational empirical change strategy
Many change efforts are based on the assumption that new infocreates change. People are expected to behave differently after they acquirenew attitudes, insights, or self-awareness.
power coercive change strategy
It involves the applications of power in which people with less power are foced to comply with the plans, directions, and leadership of those with greater power. People tend to change quite quickly when there are sufficient incentives to reward chage, or punishments if they resist change.
normative re-educative change strategy
Another theory of change recognizes the influence of social norms, especially at the level of the group. This method of change has been called a normative re-educative change strategy because it is based on the assumption that change occurs as people learn new normative orientations that result in new attitudes, values, and interpersonal relationships.
5 building blocks contribute to creating a learning organization:
- Systematic problem solving: organizations that have systematic procedures for identifying and analyzing problems are better prepared to implement needed corrections.
- Experimentation: learning organizations are constantly examining their ongoing programs to improve their production processes, internal procedures, and organizational functions.
- Learning from past experiences Learning from others
- Transferring knowledge
Organizational life cycle stages characterized by a dominant issue and a specific change challenge that must be faced before the org advances to the next stage:
- Stage 1: entrepreneurial stage, which focuses of identifying and developingnew products.
- Stage2: the collectivity or growth stage, has the need for leadership. dominantissue at Stage 2 is how to delegate responsibilities and provide cleardirection so that the collective efforts of many people will combineeffectively to produce the desired products or services
- Stage 3, the formulization or maturity stage, is the need for delegation and control. The establishment of formal procedures contributes to predictable, patterned activities.
- Stage 4: the elaboration stage, is the need to control bureaucratic inefficiencies. As org’s enter the elaboration stage, they usually begin to decline as a result of excessive bureaucratic procedures: unnecessary reports, useless meetings, needless approvals, and meaningless activity measures. At this stage, org’s will continue to decline unless they can be revitalized.
The process of revitalizing mature org’s, occurs in 5 stages:
- bureaucracy “bashing,”
- employee empowerment,
- continuous improvement, and
- cultural change
Diffusion of an OD intervention
refers to the extent which the initial change spreads throughout the org and producescomplementary changes in other individuals or programs