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What are the 2 things that the respiratory is responsible for?
- 1. Gas Exchange by diffusion
- 2. pH balance
What are the 3 parts of the nose that are involved with the respiratory system?
- External nares (nostrils)
- Vestibules with vibrassae (nose hairs)
- Nasal cavity with conchae
what are the vestibules with vibrassae used as?
as a gross (large scale) filter
What is the function of the chonchae in the nasal cavity?
- Causes turbulence
- *chonchae also called turbinates
What is the nasal cavity lined with?
ciliated, vascularized mucus membrane
What are the 3 functions of the nasal cavity?
- warms airflow before going into lungs
- humidifies airflow before going into lungs
- filters airflow
What are the 4 main parts of the pharynx?
- Internal nares
What are the 2 parts of the nasopharynx?
- Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
- Eustachian tube
What are the 2 parts of the oropharynx?
- Palatine tonsils
- Lingual tonsils
What does the laryngopharynx diverge into?
The glottis and the esophagus
What are the 3 functions of the pharynx?
- Closes internal nares while swallowing
- Reduces infection by tonsils
- Produces vowel sounds
- ----->consonants are made by mouth
What is the larynx and what are the 4 parts of it?
- The voice box
- 1. Vocal folds (cords)
- 2. Epiglottis
- 3. Thyroid cartilage (adam's apple)
- 4. Cricoid cartilage
What does the epiglottis do?
It closes the glottis while swallowing
What is the trachea and what are it's 2 main features?
- The windpipe
- 1. Cartilaginous rings
- 2. Ciliated, vascularized mucous membrane
Describe the cartilaginous rings of the trachea
- For structural support and to provide strength to airway
Describe the mucous membrane of the trachea. What is it used for?
- Mucociliary escalatory--mucus is driven up
- Same function as nasal cavity--warms, humidifies, and filters airflow
What is the order of structures on the bronchial tree starting from the epiglottis down to the alveoli?
- I0 Bronchi
- II0 Bronchi
- III0 Bronchi
- Alveolar Duct
What are the Alveoli used for?
Air sacs for gas exchange
At rest, what is the average rate of breathing?
What is the percent of O2 and CO2 in inspired air?
What is the percent of O2 and CO2 in expired air?
What are the inspiratory muscles used for normal inspiration? What do they do?
- External Intercostals---located between ribs; raises rib cage
- Diaphragm---Dome shaped muscle beneath rib cage that flattens with contraction
What are the 5 muscles needed for active/forced inspiration?
- External intercostals
- Pectoralis minor
Describe what is going on during normal expiration. Is there muscle contraction? What happens to rib cage and diaphragm?
- No muscle contraction
- Inspiration muscles relax
- Rib cage settles down and diaphragm rises
- Elastic recoil
During active/forced expiration, what muscles are being used and what are they doing?
- Internal intercostals--pull down rib cage
- Abdominus rectus--pull in on abdomen viscera
- Abdomen viscera pushes up on diaphragm
What are the 4 mechanisms used to control breathing?
- Medullary rhythmicity area
- Central chemoreceptors
- Peripheral chemorecptors
Describe the inspiratory neurons in the medullary rhythmicity area
- Stimulate inspiratory muscles
- Inhibit expiratory neurons
- Fatigue is about 2 secs.
Describe the expiratory neurons in the medullary rhythmicity area
- Inhibit inspiratory muscles and neurons
- Elastic recoil
- Fatigue is about 2 secs.
What is the system in which the medullary rhythmicity area uses? How does it work?
- Cyclic self-excitation with reciprocal inhibition
- The inspiratory and expiratory neurons act one after another in an alternating cycle
What are the 2 parts of the pons used for breathing? What do they do?
- Apneustic area--inhalation
- Pneumotaxic area--exhalation
what is the system in which the pons use for breathing?
Cyclic self-excitation with reciprocal inhibition
What do the central chemoreceptors do for controlling breathing? where are they located?
- located in medulla
- monitor CO2 and H+ in CSF
What do the peripheral chemoreceptors do for controlling breathing? Where are they located?
- Located in the aorta and carotid arteries
- Monitor everything (O2, CO2, H+) in plasma
Describe the O2 in blood.
- 98.5% oxyhemoglobin
- 1.5 % dissolved gas
Describe the CO2 in blood.
- 7% dissolved gas
- 23% carbamino Hgb
- 70% HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)
Where in the body is CO2 high? Is acidity, H+ and pH high or low here?
- In tissues (everything except lungs)
- high acidity and H+
- low pH
Where is CO2 low in the body? Is acidity, H+ and pH high or low here?
- In lungs
- Low acidity and H+High pH
What does O2/Hgb affinity vary with? Describe.
- Varies with pH
- when pH is high O2/ Hgb affinity is high (in lungs)
- when pH is low, O2/Hgb affinity is low (in tissues)
How many liters is in the inspiratory reserve volume?
about 3 liters
What is the volume of the lungs at rest? What is this volume called?
How many liters are in the expiratory reserve volume?
How many liters are in the residual volume?
What 3 lung volumes are included in the vital capacity volume? How many liters is the vital capacity?
- Inspiritaory reserve, tidal, and expiratory volume
- About 4.7 liters
What 2 lung volumes are included in the functional expiratory capacity? How many liters is in this?
- Expiratory reserve and residual volume
- 2.4 liters
The sum of what 2 things equals the total lung volume? What is the total lung volume?
- Vital capacity plus functional expiratory capacity
- About 6 liters
What is the equation used to find the partial pressure of something?
atmospheric pressure x ____ pressure
What is the atmospheric pressure? What is the standard elements of this "atmosphere"?
- 760 mm Hg
- At sea level and room temp.
What is the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2)? What is the equation used to find this?
Describe the path of blood flow using the pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery and alveolus
Pulmonary artery-->alveolous-->pulmonary vein
What is the PO2 and PCO2 at the pulmonary artery?
What is the PO2 and PCO2 at the alveolus?
What is the PO2 and PCO2 at the pulmonary vein?
What is the pathway that air takes during inspiration from the atmosphere to the lungs? Know the reverse of this as well!
- External nares (through vestibules with vibrassae)
- Nasal cavity
- Io Bronchi
- IIo Bronchi
- IIIo Bronchi
- Alveolar duct