Anatomy Test Wed.

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?

  1. function of blood vessels
    take blood to the tissues and back
  2. arteries
    • leave the heart and become smaller and smaller, carry blood away, high pressure
    • thick walled, smaller
  3. arterioles
    lead to capillary beds
  4. capillaries
    embedded in tissues and empty into venules
  5. venules
    carry deoxygenated blood to veins
  6. veins
    • return deoxygenated blood to the heart
    • large thin walled with valves
    • veins (vena cava) large blood vessels
    • -carries blood from tissues to the heart
    • -blood is not under great pressure
    • -blood travels uphill (legs and arms)
  7. lumen
    central cavity
  8. 3 layers of lumen
    • (tunics)
    • tunic intima, tunic media, tunic externa
  9. tunic intima
    • thin endothelium
    • lines the lumen
    • -in contact with blood
    • squamous epithelial cells
    • decreases friction for blood flow
  10. tunic media
    • smooth muscle and elastic tissue (fibers)
    • controlled by symphathetic nervous system
    • constrict (vasoconstriction) makes lumen smaller
    • dilate (vasodilation) makes lumen larger
  11. tunic externa
    • mostly fibrous connective tissue
    • protect and support vessel
  12. walls of arteries are...
    very thick
  13. tunica media is heavier because ___ to heart, and must expand when blood is forced __
    closer; out
  14. walls of arteries have ____ blood pressure
  15. lumens of veins are larger
    • further from heart
    • lower blood pressure
    • must get blood back to heart against gravity
    • contain valves to prevent backflow
  16. movement of blood through vessels
    • arterial blood is pumped by the heart
    • veins also use the milking action of skeletal muscles to help move blood
    • respiratory pump occurs when we inhale, pressure lowers and veins near heart expand and fill
  17. varicose veins
    • blood pools in the feet andĀ legs
    • poor return from pressure on veins
    • veins become twisted and dialated
    • extreme case can lead to thrombophlebitis (clot in a vessel with poor circulation) and can cause a pulmonary embolism and death
  18. capillaries
    • microscopic blood vessels (walls=1 cell thick)
    • red blood cells move through single file
    • thin capillary walls allow nutrients and gases to diffuse easily between blood cells and surrounding tissues
  19. capillaries form interweaving networks called _______; which have _______
    capillary beds; microcirculation
  20. capillary beds consist of 2 types of vessels
    • vascular shunt- directly connects an arteriole to a venule
    • true capillaries- exchange vessels, branch off shunt
  21. pre-capillary sphincter
    regulates flow of blood into the capillaries
  22. direct diffusion
    lipid soluble molecules (respiratory gases)
  23. endocytosis or exocytosis
    lipid insoluble molecules (nutrients, wastes)
  24. intercellular clefts
    • capillary gaps
    • plasma membrane not joined by tight junctions
  25. fenestrations of some capillaries
    • small solutes and fluids
    • fenestrations=pores
  26. systolic pressure
    • ventricle systole
    • heart contracts
  27. diastolic pressure
    • ventricle diastole
    • heart relaxes, between contractions
  28. tools used to measure blood pressure
    • sphygmomanometer
    • stethoscope
  29. blood pressure is measured at:
    brachial artery in arm (near heart)
  30. normal blood pressure
    • 140-100 mm Hg
    • 80-70 mm Hg
  31. hypotension
    • low systolic (below 110 mm Hg)
    • often associated with illness
  32. hypertension
    • high systolic (above 140 mm Hg)
    • can be dangerous if chronic
    • very few symptoms, silent killer
    • consequences: heart failure, vascular disease (poor circulation), renal failure, stroke
  33. cardiac output
    • amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart in one minute
    • CO=(heart rate x stroke volume)
  34. stroke volume
    volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one contraction
  35. in one minute ____ of blood are pumped by the heart
    5250 cc (1 cc=1 ml)
  36. on average, ___ of blood is pumped through the heart every minute
  37. about ____ quarts of blood a day
  38. Starling's law of the heart
    the more the cardiac muscle is stretched, the stronger the contraction
  39. heart adjusts its pumping rate to ____
    the rate of blood return
  40. what's the most common way to change cardio output
    changing heart rate
  41. noise heard when taking blood pressure caused by:
    vibrations in the walls of the blood vessel
  42. 5 sounds of Korotkoff:
    • 1. snapping sound heard at the systolic pressure
    • 2. "murmurs" between the systolic and diastolic pressures
    • 3 and 4. "thumping" and "muting"
    • 5. "silence" as cuff pressure drops
  43. causes of increased heart rate or Tachycardia
    • heart rate over 100 beats per minute
    • sympathetic nervous system (controls internal organs, nerves in vert. column, fight or flight)
    • -crisis (physical or emotional stress); low blood pressure
    • hormones
    • -epinephrine, mimics sympathetic nerves; thyroxine, secreted by thyroid to increase metabolism
    • exercise
    • electrolyte (blood chemical) imbalance
    • decreased blood volume
  44. Arterial BP=
    CO x PR
  45. CO
    • cardio output
    • amount of blood pumped out of left ventricle per minute
  46. PR
    • peripheral resistance
    • amount of friction in the blood vessels
    • increase in blood viscosity (thickness) increases PR
  47. neural factors on blood pressure
    • autonomic nervous system adjustments in the sympathetic division
    • causes vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) which will increase BP
    • increased heart rate=increased CO=increased BP
    • decreased HR=decreased CO=decreased BP
    • vessel diameter goes up (vasodilate)=decreased BP
    • vessel diameter goes down (vasoconstriction)=increased BP
  48. effects of kidneys
    • increased BP=increase in urine leaving body
    • fluid in urine comes from water in bloodstream so decreased blood volume and decrease in BP
    • kidneys retain water to increase BP
  49. effect of temperature
    • heat has a vasodilation effect= decrease BP
    • cold has a vasoconstricting effect= increase BP
  50. effect of chemicals
    • epinephrine= increased HR and increased BP
    • nicotine= increased BP (vasoconstriction)
    • alcohol and histamine= decreased BP (vasodilation)
  51. effect of hormones
    • some will increase BP
    • -adrenaline
    • -antidiuretic (vasopressin), increased water retention
    • -anglotension (released by kidney)
  52. pulse
    • pulse- pressure wave of blood
    • normal pulse= 75 beats/min
    • monitored at "pressure points" where pulse if easily palpated
    • common pulse taking artery is the radial artery

Card Set Information

Anatomy Test Wed.
2013-04-09 13:35:58

Show Answers:

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview