English Language-Frameworks

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English Language-Frameworks
2013-04-09 10:37:43
English language frameworks

Cards to revise section A of AQA English Language B
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  1. Lexis
    The vocabulary of a language-words
  2. Semantics
    The study of how meaning is created through words and phrases
  3. Grammar
    The system of rules for language there are 3 parts:1. Word classes 2. Syntax 3. Morphology
  4. Phonology
    Study of sounds-how they're produced and how they're combined to make words
  5. Pragmatics
    Language in use, social conventions, context and how this affects meaning
  6. Graphology
    The study of the appearance of texts
  7. Discourse
    • In writing-how a text is put together
    • In speech-how a conversation is organised
  8. Grammatical cohesion
    How to make a text fir together e.g. by using adverbs like furthermore.
  9. Lexical cohesion
    When words in a discourse relate to each other e.g. Lots of words relating to cars/driving
  10. 3 steps to dicourse analysis
    • 1. What kind of discourse is it? Audience, purpose & form
    • 2. What language frameworks contribute to the dicourse?
    • 3. Look at the discourse structure and cohesion
  11. Noun
    Naming words
  12. Adjectives
    Describe nouns
  13. Verbs
    Doing words
  14. Adverbs
    Describe verbs
  15. Pronouns
    Take the place of nouns e.g. he
  16. Conjunctions
    Connecting words e.g. but
  17. Prepositions
    Define time, space and direction e.g. before, beneath
  18. Determiners
    Specify information about nouns e.g. quantity the, two etc
  19. How do grammatical rules affect morphology?
    Because extra bits (inflections) have to be added to change things like number or tense e.g. adding s to cup or ed to walk
  20. How can grammar choices influence the reader?
    • Tense-Using present tense can make something sound more dramatic
    • Plurals-Using plurals can increase the scale of a scene
    • Adjectives
  21. What are the 4 categories of noun?
    Proper, abstract, concrete and collective
  22. What is a count noun?
    Count nouns can be counted e.g bricks
  23. What are mass nouns?
    Mass nouns can't be counted and they don't have a plural e.g. information
  24. Comparative adjective
    Make comparisons e.g. better
  25. Superlative adjectives
    Indicate the best e.g. finest
  26. Main verbs
    Identify the action in a sentence e.g she sings
  27. Auxilary verbs
    Go before the main verb and give extra information.
  28. Primary auxilary verbs
    Do, have, be
  29. Modal auxilary verbs
    There are 9: can, could, will, would, must, may, might, shall, should.
  30. Active voice
    When the subject is the focus and performs the action e.g. Ahmed kicked the ball
  31. Passive voice
    Focuses on the object and changes the order e.g. the ball was kicked by Ahmed-makes sentences seem more formal
  32. How many sentence types are there?
    4-Minor, simple, compound & complex
  33. What are the 4 sentence functions?
    • Declarative-gives information
    • Imperative-gives commands
    • Interrogative-asks questions
    • Exclaimative-are expressive
  34. What can knowing the sentence type/function help you to identify?
    Audience and purpose
  35. Informal lexis
    Is relaxed and conversational and will contain slang, abbrviations and more monosyllabic words
  36. Formal lexis
    Is more serious and impersonal and tends to use Standard English
  37. Semantics-denotation
    The straightforward meaning of a word or phrase
  38. Semantics-connotation
    The associations or emotions a word can have e.g rose can mean love not just a flower
  39. Implications
    When meaning is suggested rather than directly stated
  40. Ambiguity
    When a word or phrase can be interpreted in more than 1 way. e.g men can't bear children
  41. Semantic field
    Groups of words that are connected in meaning.
  42. Synonyms
    Words that have similar meanings e.g food-snack-grub
  43. Antonyms
    Words with opposite meanings e.g. hot/cold
  44. Hypernym/hyponym
    Hypernym is a general word e.g. school a hyponym is specific e.g. primary, secondary
  45. Figurative Language
    similies, metaphors, personification, oxymoron-2 opposite ideas together e.g. bittersweet
  46. Jargon
    Language people use at work
  47. Rhetorical language
    Designed to persuade & can include: 3 part list, repetition, hyperbole & rhetorical questions
  48. Phonology