Respiratory 1

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Respiratory 1
2013-04-11 17:23:03


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  1. The primary function of the respiratory system is to:
    Move air into the lungs to supply oxygen to the metabolic processes of the body while removing enough carbon dioxide to maintain the acid-base balance of the blood.
  2. The process in which oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the barrior between air and blood is called:
    Gaseous exchange
  3. The respiratory system consists of:
    The upper respiratory tract, which mainly deals with conduction, and the lower respiratory tract, which is partly involved in conduction and mainly with gaseous exchange.
  4. The upper respiratory tract consists of:
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
  5. The lower respiratory tract is made of:
    • Conducting airways (trachea, main bronchi, tracheobronchial tree)
    • Respiratory airways
  6. The conducting airways are not concerned with gas exchange but instead, it:
    • Protects the lower airways by removing dust, debris, etc.
    • Humidifies and warms inspired air
  7. The respiratory airways are where gaseous exchange takes place. Gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place at the:
    Alveolar-capillary barrier
  8. Inspired air is breathed in and warmed up, expired air is cooled. This is known as the:
    Counter-current exchange system, and prevents excessive heat loss
  9. The lungs are divided into lobes. The right lung has _ lobes, the left lung has _ lobes.
    • Right - 3 lobes - upper, middle, lower
    • Left - 2 lobes - upper, lower
  10. The trachea divides into 2 bronchi, which then subdivides into 4 lobar bronchi. This is the route it divides into:
    Trachea ⇒ 2 main bronchi ⇒ 4 lobar bronchi ⇒ 16 segmental bronchi ⇒ small bronchi ⇒ terminal bronchioles ⇒ resoiratory bronchioles,  alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
  11. The alveoli are:
    Small, balloon-like structures in lungs
  12. The outer surface of the lungs is covered by a membrane called the:
    Visceral pleura
  13. The lungs have 2 sources of blood supply:
    Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  14. The main pulmonary artery divides into 2 arteries, 1 for each lung
  15. The Fick equation is used to estimate cardiac output. The Fick principle states that:
    The rate at which oxygen is taken up from the atmosphere is equal to the flow of blood passing through the lungs.

    • CO=O2 consumption /
    • a-v O2 concentration difference
    • a=arterial, v=venous, CO= cardiac output
  16. The ______ is the main muscle of respiration
  17. Movement of the _____ also contributes to respiration by increasing the diameter of the chest
  18. During forced respiration, when there is increased demand for oxygen, accessory muscles of respiration activate. These aren't primarily involved in respiration but enlarge the ribcage in any way possible.
  19. What is normal breathing called?
  20. Pulmonary ventilation is:
    The process for moving gases in and out of the lungs
  21. What is compliance?
    A measure of how easily the lungs can be expanded
  22. What are STP, BTP, and ATP?
    • Standard Temperature and Pressure
    • Body Temp. & Pressure
    • Atmospheric Temp. & Pressure
  23. Energy consumption can be measured as the:
    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  24. What is BMR?
    BMR refers to the minimum energy used by the body to maintain the essential activities of the brain, heart, and lungs.
  25. There are 2 methods of measuring BMR:
    • Direct calorimetry
    • Indirect calorimetry
  26. When a breath is held, CO2 rises to a constant _____ _____ at which the next breath must be taken
    Breaking point
  27. Challenges to Normal Respiration:
    • Exersize
    • Altitude
    • Breath-holding
    • Diving
    • Drowning
    • High oxygen levels
  28. Respiratory failure is when:
    Alveolar ventilation is not sufficient to maintain normal arterial blood gases
  29. Lung defences against infection:
    • Upper airways
    • Conducting airways
    • Immunity
  30. The earliest phase of lung development in a fetus occurs at 4 weeks with the formation of the:
    Lung bud
  31. The fetus' lungs develops in 4 stages:
    • Pseudoglandular phase
    • Canalicular phase
    • Terminal saccular phase
    • Alveolar phase