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The primary function of the respiratory system is to:
Move air into the lungs to supply oxygen to the metabolic processes of the body while removing enough carbon dioxide to maintain the acid-base balance of the blood.
The process in which oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the barrior between air and blood is called:
The respiratory system consists of:
The upper respiratory tract, which mainly deals with conduction, and the lower respiratory tract, which is partly involved in conduction and mainly with gaseous exchange.
The upper respiratory tract consists of:
- Nasal cavity
The lower respiratory tract is made of:
- Conducting airways (trachea, main bronchi, tracheobronchial tree)
- Respiratory airways
The conducting airways are not concerned with gas exchange but instead, it:
- Protects the lower airways by removing dust, debris, etc.
- Humidifies and warms inspired air
The respiratory airways are where gaseous exchange takes place. Gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place at the:
Inspired air is breathed in and warmed up, expired air is cooled. This is known as the:
Counter-current exchange system, and prevents excessive heat loss
The lungs are divided into lobes. The right lung has _ lobes, the left lung has _ lobes.
- Right - 3 lobes - upper, middle, lower
- Left - 2 lobes - upper, lower
The trachea divides into 2 bronchi, which then subdivides into 4 lobar bronchi. This is the route it divides into:
Trachea ⇒ 2 main bronchi ⇒ 4 lobar bronchi ⇒ 16 segmental bronchi ⇒ small bronchi ⇒ terminal bronchioles ⇒ resoiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
The alveoli are:
Small, balloon-like structures in lungs
The outer surface of the lungs is covered by a membrane called the:
The lungs have 2 sources of blood supply:
Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
The main pulmonary artery divides into 2 arteries, 1 for each lung
The Fick equation is used to estimate cardiac output. The Fick principle states that:
The rate at which oxygen is taken up from the atmosphere is equal to the flow of blood passing through the lungs.
- CO=O2 consumption /
- a-v O2 concentration difference
- a=arterial, v=venous, CO= cardiac output
The ______ is the main muscle of respiration
Movement of the _____ also contributes to respiration by increasing the diameter of the chest
During forced respiration, when there is increased demand for oxygen, accessory muscles of respiration activate. These aren't primarily involved in respiration but enlarge the ribcage in any way possible.
What is normal breathing called?
Pulmonary ventilation is:
The process for moving gases in and out of the lungs
What is compliance?
A measure of how easily the lungs can be expanded
What are STP, BTP, and ATP?
- Standard Temperature and Pressure
- Body Temp. & Pressure
- Atmospheric Temp. & Pressure
Energy consumption can be measured as the:
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
What is BMR?
BMR refers to the minimum energy used by the body to maintain the essential activities of the brain, heart, and lungs.
There are 2 methods of measuring BMR:
- Direct calorimetry
- Indirect calorimetry
When a breath is held, CO2 rises to a constant _____ _____ at which the next breath must be taken
Challenges to Normal Respiration:
- High oxygen levels
Respiratory failure is when:
Alveolar ventilation is not sufficient to maintain normal arterial blood gases
Lung defences against infection:
- Upper airways
- Conducting airways
The earliest phase of lung development in a fetus occurs at 4 weeks with the formation of the:
The fetus' lungs develops in 4 stages:
- Pseudoglandular phase
- Canalicular phase
- Terminal saccular phase
- Alveolar phase