Card Set Information
Wednesday, June 2, 2010
: (2250 km thick) contains liquid Ni, Fe 2200 degrees celcius.
: (1200 km thick) contains solid Ni, Fe 5000 degrees celcius.
2900 km thick, contains Si, O
, Fe, Mg, 870 degrees celcius
5-40 km thick, contains O
, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K, Mg.
: mostly basalt.
: mostly granite.
Upper part of the mantle including some of the crust, made of hard rock.
Lower part of mantle, made of flowing rock.
Section of lithosphere. Huge chunks of land that fit together.
One super continent of all continents joined in one single land mass that slowly seperated.
Plates move together forming mountains or trenches.
Plates move apart forming a rift valley.
2 plates slip past each other.
An area by the shore that connects the oceanic and continental crust.
Land that ends at the boundary line.
Seamount with a flat top that will never erupt again.
A deep valley underwater created by convergent boundaries and subduction.
Ocean Basin or Abyssal Plain
The flat part of the ocean floor.
Land in the middle of the ocean completly surronded by water.
An underwater mountain.
Cinder Cone Volcano
Steep, thick lava, explosive (Mexico).
Wide, gentle slope, thin lava, quiet (Hawaii).
Alternating cinder cone and sheild (Fuji, Mt. St. Helens).
Molten rock above ground.
1) Thin Lava
Pahoehoe - fast moving, hot, thin, dries smooth.
Aa - slower, cool, dries brittle.
2) Thick Lava
Cinders (small pieces) and bombs (baseball to car size)
Pyroclastic Flow = ash + cinders + bombs
Molten rock under ground - contains silica.
Huge hole left by volcano collapse (Crater Lake).
Caused by tension, hanging wall slides down.
Caused by compression, hanging wall slides up.
Caused by shearing (San Andreas).
Pulls on rocks so they become thinner in the center.
Pushes on rocks until they fold or break.
Moves rock side to side in opposite directions.
Magma melts through the crust.
Ring of Fire
Rims Pacific Ocean, most along divergent boundaries.
Point directly above focus on surface of the Earth.
(Primary) first, fast, move back & forth.
(Secondary) move side to side but not in liquid.
(Surface) when P and S reach epicenter, slow, damaging.
Spot under Earth where plates slip.
1) Natural - not man made.
2) Inorganic - made from nonliving objects.
3) Solid - not liquid or gas.
4) Repeating crystal pattern.
5) Definite chemical compisition.
A color of powder on unglazed plate.
Reflection of light (shiny, dull, metallic, glassy, waxy, pearly).
1=softest to 10=hardest
Created when the liquid in the solution evaporates leaving crystals behind.
A combination of minerals.
Weathering (breaks down), erosion (carries fragments away), deposition (fragments settle down), compaction (sediments squeeze together tightly), cementation (dissolved minerals glue fragments).
Cooled lava or magma.
Heat and pressure on other rocks.
Must be dead, at least 10,000 years old, show evidence of life.
How long it takes for a planet to spin once on it's axis.
How long it takes a planet to orbit around the sun.
Oval orbit due to gravity and inertia.
Solar - sun is blocked by moon.
Lunar - moon is blocked by Earth.
Small, rocky surfaces - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars.
Large, surfaces not solid - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
Ice, dust, gas, orbiting the sun.
Small rock chunks - big band seperates inner from outer planets.
Rock chunk that orbits.
Breaks free/burns in orbit.
The lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere from which light is given off.
Extends upward about 10,000 km.
Goes into space for millions of km.
Cooler gases on the surface.
All of space and everything in it.
Billions of stars - grouped acording to shape (spiral, elliptical, irregular).
The sun and everything that orbits it.
Distance light travels in a year (6 trillion miles).
Shows relationship between star surface temperature and brightness.
Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Giant, Death
North pole star.
Dog star, brightest star.
Closest star (4.2 light years).
88 star pictures named by Greeks, Romans, Native Americans, and all other early peoples.
Layers that fold upwards.
Layers that fold downwards.
Talc, Sulfur, Diamond, Graphite, Pyrite
Limestone, Obsidian, Granite, Sandstone, Marble.
Principle of Cross-Cutting
The intrusion (magma shooting up and hardening) is newer.
Law of Superposition
Top layers are newer, bottom are older.
Summer Solstice (June 21), Winter Solstice (December 21), Vernal Equinox (March 21), Autumn Equinox (September 22).
New moon, waxing crescent, 1st quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, 3rd quarter, waning crescent.