SAD Ch 12

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SAD Ch 12
2013-04-10 13:45:41

Systems Analysis & Design
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  1. appending error
    a data entry error that occurs when a user adds additional characters that are not part of the actual data entry to existing or new data.
  2. authentication mechanisms
    authorization and access controls that make use of many of the new technologies, such as biometric readers and smart cards, and can be effectively employed to prevent unauthorized access.
  3. authorization schema
    an authorization mechanism that involves the establishment of access rules that can be applied individually to each user or collectively to all or a subset of users.
  4. bar code
    a device for encoding text and numberical information in a form that is easily read by inexpensive electronic laser sensing devices; consists of a series of parallel, adjacent bars and spaces.  Predefined bar and space patterns, or symbologies, are used to encode small strings of character data into a printed symbol.
  5. biometrics
    the automatic identification of a person based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics.
  6. check digit
    a digit appended to an actual number that is derived by applying a mathematical algorithm to the actual data.
  7. command dialogue
    an HCI method in which the end user initiates all dialogue by issuing instructions to the computer via a structured syntax of commands.
  8. consistency
    the characteristic that the methods and functions available on one data entry screen should be consistently applied to all entry screens within that application.
  9. context-sensitive help
    a function that allows the user to obtain additional explanations and guidance that are directly related to the data field being filled or the input function being performed.
  10. controlled usability test
    a type of usability assessment in which a single participant (or, on rare occasions, two participants) is placed in a particular location where he or she is given a document, or task list, outlining a set of tasks to perform in a particular order.
  11. default value
    the value used for a field if no other input is given by the user.
  12. desktop metaphor
    an HCI classification in which an electronic desktop provides all of the flexibility and advantages of a physical desktop, as well as many functions not available outside the electronic environment.  The idea is to create an environment that allows for direct manipulation of the multiple items on the desktop and is as close as possible to the real-world environment.  Also known as the direct manipulation metaphor.
  13. dialogue
    the sequence of steps and the manner in which information is provided to and received from and end user.
  14. dialogue metaphor
    an HCI classification that attempts to create an elsectronic version of a conversation using natural language.
  15. document metaphor
    an HCI classification in which the end user interacts with the computer by browsing through or entering data on electronic documents and forms.
  16. electronic personal assistant
    a mobile device that answers the phone, saves callers' names and numbers, places calls when its subscriber says a name or number, and handles faxes and e-mail.
  17. encryption mechanism
    an access control mechanism whereby data are encoded on entry and can be decoded only by a user in possission of the appropriate key.
  18. feedback loop
    a closed transmission path that maintains a prescribed relationship between output signals and input signals.
  19. focus group
    a type of usability assessment in which a moderator orally questions a group of users.
  20. graphical user interface (GUI)
    a computer terminal interface that is based on graphics instead of text.
  21. hierarchical menu approach
    a menu approach in which the main menu provides the end user with a series of categories of tasks from which to choose, and then, on selection, the user is presented with another menu that contains the task-specific options or selections.
  22. human-computer interaction (HCI)
    the relationship between the user and the computer in order to fulfill a task.
  23. hypermedia
    the concept of linking graphics, video, and audio together in a manner that allows the end user to easily navigate between the documents.
  24. iconic menu
    a menu approach that allows the end user to select and execute commands by pointing at and clicking graphical buttons or icons located on the screen or menu bar.
  25. input controls
    controls intended to ensure that the data input to the system are both accurate and valild to the highest degree possible.
  26. input screen
    a scren-based form that allows end users to enter the necessary information in the blanks provided so that all data are captured or retrieved in a logical, easy-to-read manner.  Also known as a form.
  27. interface
    the term used to describe the human-computer interaction (HCI) mechanism.
  28. key pair
    the two mathematically related keys used in public-key encryption.
  29. macro command
    a single command that performs several functions or automates complex tasks, such as inserting boilerplate text, filling out forms, or launching applications.
  30. menu
    an HCI method in which the end user selects the desired option from a list of available alternatives that are relevant to the task being performed and the command is executed.
  31. menu bar approach
    a menu approach in which categories of command sets are listed horizontally across the top of the screen and subcategories of the command set are displayed as vertical pull-down menus when a particular category is selected.
  32. natural computing
    an approach to user interaction in which the computer responds to human beings using the time-honored traditions of human interaction: voice and gesture.
  33. optical character recognition (OCR)
    an input technology that scans virtually any form or document containing numbers, letters, or marks and then tries to interpret the content of the document and convert it into electronic form for additional processing or editing.
  34. optical input
    input that is captured by using a light source.
  35. optical mark reading (OMR)
    an input technology that uses an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to scan for marks in certain positions (defined by a horizontal line on the left or right border known as a skunk mark).  Detection is done by measuring the amount of light reflected for each position.
  36. pattern recognition system
    a system that compares digital patterns of faces, fingerprints, and other biometric data for the purposes of authentication.
  37. pop-up menu
    a menu approach that allows the designer to embed a context-specific menu under a particular area or text component on the screen.  When activated, the pop-up menu appears adjacent to the object selected by the end user, thus allowing the user to select from a list of options relevant to the object without refocusing his or her attention on another part of the screen.
  38. private key
    in public-key encryption, the key used to decode the data.
  39. public key
    in public-key encryption, the key used to encrypt the data.
  40. public-key encryption
    an access control approach that involves two keys; One is used to encrypt the data, and another is used to decrypt them.
  41. pull-down menu
    a menu of subcommands that drops down vertically from a horizontal menu bar or appears alongside another pull-down menu.
  42. secret-key encryption
    an access control approach in which the key used to encrypt the data is also used to decrypt the data.
  43. single-menu approach
    a menu approach that displays a text-based set of options that can be individually selected by the end user to perform a command or series of commands.
  44. smart card
    a credit cart-size plastic card embedded with an integrated circuit chip that makes it "smart," allowing an immense amount of information to be stored, accessed, and processed either online or off-line.
  45. symbologies
    predefined bar and space patterns used to encode small strings of character data into a printed symbol. (ex: bar codes)
  46. system status indicator
    an indication of the estimated length of time it will take a process to execute or be completed.
  47. transcription error
    a data entry error that occurs when invalid data are entered into a data field.
  48. transposition error
    a data entry error that occurs when the sequence of one or more characters in a data field is reversed.
  49. truncation error
    a data entry error that occurs when a suer drops valid characters from a piece of data during the entry process.
  50. usability assessments
    data-gathering and assessment techniques used to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the various interface structures and components of the application.
  51. voice recognition
    a computer interaction method that makes use of voice synthesis technology to allow the user to interface with the computing device by using natural-language and voice commands.