PTG 105 -Exam 3- Lecture 16-2

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  1. What two general things can be used to determine the inderlying cause of liver disease in most patients?
    • Patient History
    • Laboratory Examination
  2. What uaually causes Jaundice in liver disease?
    Excess Bilirubin
  3. What three things can cause jaundice in liver disease patients?
    • Too many RBC dying due to hemolytic anemia
    • Failure of liver to remove Bilirubin
    • Blockage of bile ducts
  4. What is teh term for jaundice caused by blocakge of bile ducts?
    Obstructive jaundice
  5. What is obstructive jaundice?
    Blockage of bile ducts
  6. What two other type of jaundice exist that do not occur due to liver disease?
    • Physiological jaundice
    • Congenital jaundice
  7. What age group gets physiological jaundice?
  8. What causes physiological jaundice?
    Immature liver cannot process bilirubin yet
  9. What type of jaundice is caused by an immature liver that is yet unable to process bilirubin?
    Physiological jaundice
  10. What is Congential jaundice?
    • Inherited disease due to the lack of enzymes needed to process Bilirubin
    • OR
    • defect in transport protein for Bilirubin excretion
  11. What type of jaundice is caused by an inherited inability to produce enzymes that process bilirubin?
    Congenital Jaundice
  12. What are the names of diseases of congenital jaundice?
    Crigler Najar and Gilbert syndromes
  13. Crigler Najar and Gilbert syndromes are what?
    inability to produce and enzyme that breaks down bilirubin
  14. What is Dubin johnson syndrome?
    Inability to produce protein transporters for bilirubin excretion
  15. What disease is characterized by the inability to produce transport proteins needed for Bilirubin excretion?
    Dubin Johnson syndrome
  16. What is the endpoint for chronic liver damage?
    Hepatic failure
  17. What are the symptoms of hepatic failure?
    • Jaundice
    • Hypoalbunemia
    • hyperammonenmia
    • Fetor hepaticus (sweet breath)
    • coagulation failure
    • palmer erythema
    • spider angiomas
    • gynecomastia
  18. What is indicatedby jaundice, spider angiomas, gynecomastia, coagualtion failure, palmer erythema, fetor hepatics, hypoalbunemia and hyperammonemia?
    Hepatic failure
  19. What is metabolic derangement of the hepatocytes?
    Hepatic failure pathology with no necrosis or inflammation
  20. What are the three pathologies of Hepatic failure?
    • Massive necrosis
    • Chronic hepatitis
    • Metabolic derangement of the hepatocytes
  21. The pathology of Hepatic failure is based on what?
    Depends on cause (etiology)
  22. What is Chronic encephalopathy?
    Metabolic disorder of the nervous system occuring due to complications of acute or chronic liver disease
  23. What is the term for a metabolic disorder of the nervous system occuring due to acute or chronic liver disease?
    Hepatic encephalopathy
  24. What does insiduous mean?
    slow onset
  25. Elevevated levels of what can play a role in hepatic encephaopathy?
  26. Elevated Ammonia levels play a role in what disease?
    Hepatic encephalopathy
  27. What disease has symptoms of confusion, coma, disorientation and loss of conciousness?
    Hepatic encephalopathy
  28. Hepatic encephalopathy has what symptoms?
    Confusion, comea, loss of conciousness and disorientation
  29. Hepatorenal syndrome is what?
    Renal failure in a patient with liver disease?
  30. What is renal failure in a patient with liver disease called?
    Hepatorenal syndrome
  31. When a person with hepatorenal disease is treated for hepatic failure what also occurs? 
    Renal function improves
  32. How do you improve renal function in a patient with hepatorenal disease?
    Treat the liver disease and the renal disease will improve
  33. What are three Inflammatory liver diseases covered in class?
    • Viral hepatitis
    • Alcoholic liver disease
    • Cirrhosis
  34. Viral hepatitis can be caused by what strains of the disease?
    A, B, C, E, G, and delta
  35. What are the signs of viral hepatitis?
    • Jaundice
    • Anorexia
    • Weight loss
    • Nausea
    • Fever
    • Dark colored urine
    • Fatigue
  36. A patient that presents with Dark colored urine, aundice, fatigue, anorexia, nausea and weight loss could have what disease?
    Vira hepatitis
  37. What is icterus?
    Jaundice caused by bilirubin accumulation
  38. What is the term for jaundice caused by bilirubin accumulation?
  39. What are signs seen in a physical exam that indicate Viral hepatitus?
    Icterus and englarged tender liver
  40. An enlarged tender liver and icterus in a physical exam can point to what disease?
    Viral hepatitis
  41. For a patient with viral hepatitis, what would you expect from their laboratory tests?
    • Elevated ALT/AST
    • Increased bilirubin
    • Prolonged prothrobin time
  42. Prolonged prothrombin time indicates a defect in what?
    Coagulation defect
  43. A person with elevated AST/ALT and bilirubin as well as prolonged prothrombin time could have what disease?
    Viral hepatitis
  44. What is the most common strain of viral hepatitis?
    A (47%)
  45. What is the second most common strain of hepatitis?
    B (34%)
  46. What is the third most common type of hepatitis?
    C (16%)
  47. What are the most common types of hepatitis in order from most common to least?
    A, B, C
  48. What percent of viral hepatitis is strain A?
  49. What percent of viral hepatitis is B?
  50. What percent of viral hepatitis is C?
  51. What percent of viral hepatitis is neither A, B or C?
  52. What viruses that were mentioned in class other than viral hepatitis affect the liver?
    • Yellow fever virus
    • infectious mononucleosis
  53. Why does urine appear dark in patients with viral hepatitis?
    Presence of conjugated bilirubin in the urine
  54. Conjugated bilirubin in the liver causes what?
    dark colored urine
  55. What strains of Hepatitis are enterically transmitted?
    A and E
  56. What strains of hepatitis are transmitted parenterally?
    B, C, D and G
  57. What is pruritis?
    Severe itching of the skin
  58. Severe itching of the skin is called what?
  59. What is the cause of pruritis in people with liver disease?
    accumulation fo toxins under the skin
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PTG 105 -Exam 3- Lecture 16-2
2013-04-09 18:13:11
PTG 105 Exam Lecture 16

PTG 105 -Exam 3- Lecture 16-2
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