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What does language & power mean?
The language of power tries to exert influence or control in spoken or written form.
Power in Political language
Persuades and uses rhetorical devices.
Power in Legal Language
Uses jargon, has complex syntax, is repetitive and has lots of subordinate clauses. Gives power to specialists because of its complexity.
Power in Education
- Teachers use imperatives
- Students use indirect questions-Is it ok if I..
- Imbalance in address terms-e.g. pupils say Sir while teachers use first names
Power in Business
Power structures in business are similar to education but manager to employee
8 ways to exert power in conversation
- Initiating the conversation
- Hold the floor
- Topic changing
- Closing down the conversation
What to remember in power conversations?
Context-the situation & relationships
How can non-verbal communication be used to exert power?
Posture, gesture, eye contact & facial expressions
How can jargon be used to dominate?
Non-specialists can feel intimidated by specialists and feel excluded from the high status group
What does Political correctness aim to promote?
How can the media exert power?
Bias, prejudice, stereotyping, sensationalism
What features of an advert can be used to exert power?
Attractive people, form, target audience, hook-to get people's attention, text-referred to as copy.
What type of lexis do adverts employ?
Comparative & superlative adjectives & high tech jargon.
What grammar features can adverts employ?
Imperatives, Disjunctive sentences e.g. elegant but sturdy.
What phonological features can adverts employ?
Alliteration, onomatopeia & rhyme
What graphological features can adverts employ?
images, colour, typeface.
What is the discourse structure of an advert?
- Further persuasion or information
- Instructions on how to get the product
What type of hooks are there?
- Semantic puns-Fly with us, the sky's the limit
- Phonetic puns-Hair today, gone tomorrow
- Figurative language-Is there a black hole in your pocket?
What is intertextuality?
Referencing other texts-e.g. referencing The Bible could give more weight to the text
12 Features of tabloids
- Short paragraphs
- Large font
- Lots of pictures
- Short words
- Simple sentences
- Simple punctuation
- Nicknames or first names
- Sensationalised one sided stories
- Emotive language
- Phonological features
- Phonetic spelling
Features of broadsheets
- Long paragraphs
- Smaller font
- Fewer photos
- Long, latinate words
- Complex sentences
- Complex punctuation
- Full names
- Fact based stories
- Neutral vocab
- Impersonal tone
- Few puns or phonological features