psychological processes cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed
Content Theories of Motivation
focus on identifying internal factors such as instincts, needs, satisfaction, and job characteristics that energize employee motivation.
Process Theories of Motivation
focus on explaining the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation
Content Theories (4)
1) Maslow Needs
2)Alderfer's ERG Theory
3)McClelland's Need Theory
4)Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory
1) Adam's Equity Theory
2) Vroom's Expectancy Theory
3) Goal Setting Theory
Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualizationHuman needs emerge in a predictable stair-step fashion
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Existence needs (E)the desire for physiological and materialistic wellbeing;Relatedness needs (R)the desire to have meaningful relationships with significant othersGrowth needs (G)the desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to their fullest potentialManagers should keep in mind that employees may be motivatedto pursue lower-level needs because they are frustrated with a higher-order need.People are motivatedby different needs at different times in their lives
McClelland's Need Theory
Need for achievement. Desire to accomplish something difficult.
Need for affiliation spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved
Need for power. Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.
McClelland's Need Theory Continued
Achievement-motivated people share three common characteristics:
1.Preference for working on tasks of moderate difficulty
2.Preference for situations in which performance is due to their efforts
3.Desire more feedback on their successes and failures
job characteristics associated with job satisfaction
job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction
Adams Equity Theory of Motivation
modelof motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice insocial exchanges or give-and-take relationships
Comparison in which another person receives greater outcomes for similar inputs.
Comparison in which another person receives lesser outcomes for similar inputs.
Practical Lessons from Equity Theory
No matter how fair management thinks the organization’s policies, procedures, and reward system are, each employee’s perception of the equity of those factors is what counts...
Managers benefit by allowing employees to participate in making decisions about important work outcomes...
Employees should be given the opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their welfare..
Managers can promote cooperation and teamwork among group members by treating them equitably...
Employees’ perceptions of justice are strongly influenced by the leadership behavior exhibited by their managers...
Managers need to pay attention to the organization’s climate for justice.
Holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Motivation boils down to the decision of how much effort to exert in a specific task situation.
represents an individual’s belief that a particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance.
-Expectancy influenced by self esteem/efficacy,previous success at task, help from others, info nec. to complete task, good equipment.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory Factors
Instrumentality A performance --> outcome perception
Valence the positive or negative value people place on outcomes
Outcomes different consequences that are contingent on performance
what an individual is trying to accomplishobject or aim of an action
How Goal Setting Works
Goals direct attention
Goals regulate effort
Goals increase persistence
Goals foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans
Lessons From Goal Setting
1.Specific high goals lead to greater performance Goal specificity – quantifiability of a goal
2.Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals
3.Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective.
4.Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment. Action plan outlines the activities or tasks that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal.
5.Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomesGoal commitment – extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal
that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning
putting more variety into a jobHorizontal loading
moving employees from one specialized job to another
Building achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement into a job.
Proactive and adaptive employee behavior aimed at changing the nature of one’s job.
Idiosyncratic Deals (i-deals)
Represent “employment terms individuals negotiate for themselves, taking myriad forms from flexible schedules to career development.”